Review of Related Literature and Studies
This portion of the paper presents foreign as well as local literature and studies, which the researcher considered related to the present study and which could provide a background to help him in the conduct of his research. Local Literature
The “K” in k-economy stands for “Knowledge”. Knowledge economy is also referred to as the new economy, and also as the surge economy. The ”e” in E-commerce and E-business means “electronic”. Cyber market refers to all the e-stores or online markets found in the Internet. Product and services offered for sale in the k-economy usually find venues in the e-stores. Thus buyers engage in E-commerce and the manners and means of their transactions are embodied in the whole gamut of processes called E-Business. As of 1995, the Philippines had around 500 thousand internet users. Out of the 79 million Philippines population, 375,000 users were online in 1999, and 683,000 users were expected to be online in 2003. A total of 4,670,942 telephone lines have been installed by various carriers including PLDT, Global, Smart, Islacom, Pitel , Digital and others. As of this year, approximately 210,000 units of GSM phones including WAP(Wireless Application Protocol) enabled were sold. WAP phones can be used for E-mail and Internet access. In 1997, the Philippines Internet economy(selling of goods and services through the Internet earned some US$1.6 million. This amount increased to some US$383.7 million in year 2002. E-commerce in the Philippines is mainly dominated by B2B transactions using proprietary protocols and private lines, such as EDI systems installed in huge retail chains like Shoemart and Makro; and large multinational corporations since Unilever and Nestle. AS of July 2001, the Philippines online trading market had 35 major buyers and more than 100 major suppliers traded with 6000 transactions volume for E-procurement and E-bidding costing of US$40 million worth of products and services. This E-marketplace is fueled by procurement and is dominated by BayanTrade. Bayan Trade is a B2B E-procurement hub in the Philippines founded in June 2000; a joint venture among Philippines top 6 conglomerates namely Aboitiz Equity Ventures Inc, Ayala Corp., Benpres Holdings Corp., JG Summit Holdings Inc. , PLDT and United Laboratories Inc.,Bayan Trade has a buyer based in over 150 companies and suppliers in namely 350 companies in its first 10 months of operation. Bayan Trade held over 250 E-bidding events and processed over 11,000 purchase orders. Laribee identified personal data to include names, address,telephone numbers , birth dates , credit card numbers , government issued identity numbers , electronic identification number routing codes and telecommunication identifying information. Most of these are widely available and used in the Philippines today. B2C transactions in the Philippines are limited to the purchase of books and software online through such popular services E-commerce sites as www.amazon.com . There are only an estimated 3 million credit card subscribers in the Philippines. This low credit card penetration combined with unfriendly policies by local credit card providers help explain the slow E-commerce uptake in the country. Security concerns have also led to higher interest changes on credit card purchases using the web. To address concerns with credit card fraud, virtual shopping malls such as www.estore-exhange.com, www.myalaya.com. And www.infinitymalls.com, which allow online shopping by offering online payment alternatives to the credit card, have sprouted in recent years. Also, some www.myayala.com has the same owner as the Bank of The Philippines Island(BPI), one can make purchases online and have the total amount of the goods purchased debited from ones savings account BPI. Foreign Literature
The resource based view of the firm shows that learning is a valuable competence that the firm should nurture. While learning is...
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