D.E.in Kate Chopin

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2006 ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ )ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ( ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ ﻋﺸﺭ، ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ، ﺹ1-51، ﻴﻭﻨﻴﻪ‬

Deictic Elements in Kate Chopin’s The Story of an Hour. A Cognitive Poetics/Stylistic Perspective Dr. Sami Breem English Department, Faculty of Arts Islamic University, Gaza, Palestine sbreem@iugaza.edu 2006/2/18 :‫ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻼﻡ: 81/01/5002، ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﻗﺒﻭل ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ " ﻗﺼﺔ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ " ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺘﺒﺔ ﻜﻴﺕ ﺘﺸﻭﺒﻥ : ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻷﺩﺒﻲ/ﺍﻷﺴﻠﻭﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺨـﺹ: ﻴﻬـﺩﻑ ﻫـﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺘﺒﺔ ﻜﻴﺕ ﺘﺸﻭﺒﻥ "ﻗﺼﺔ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ" ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺒﻲ/ﺍﻷﺴﻠﻭﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﺹ . ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺅﻜﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻭﻱ ﻟﻠﻨﺹ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻷﺩﺒﻲ‬ ، 2002 ‫ﻭﺫﻟـﻙ ﺒﺎﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻨﻅـﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻷﺩﺒﻲ/ﺍﻷﺴﻠﻭﺒﻲ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ )ﺴﺘﻭﻜﻭﻴل‬

) ‫ﻭﺠﺎﻓﻨﺯ ﻭﺴﺘﻴﻥ 3002(. ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩﺍ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺇﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺴﺘﻭﻜﻭﻴل‬ ‫ﹰ‬

‫94 – 54 : 2002(، ﻭﻴـﻨﺎﻗﺵ ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺙ ﺃﻨـﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻹﺸـﺎﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺹ ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﺴـﺎﻫﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻓـﻲ ﻓﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻯﺀ ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ )ﻋﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺹ( ، ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼـﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ " ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﺎﻻﺭﺩ" ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺕ ، ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﺯﻭﺝ . ﻜﻤﺎ‬

‫ﻴﻜﺸـﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻋﻥ ﺘﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬

. ‫ﺃﻓﻀل ﻟﻠﻘﺼﺔ‬ ABSTRACT: This paper aims to explore Kate Chopin’s The Story of an Hour from a cognitive poetics/stylistics perspective. The analysis emphasizes an integration of language and literature and draws upon theories developed in the general field of cognitive poetics/stylistics (Stockwell 2002; Gavins and Steen 2003). For the purposes of this research, using Stockwell’s model of Deictic Shift Theory (Stockwell 2002: 45-49), the analysis will investigate Chopin's use of different types of deictic expressions and shows how such use guides the reader to be involved in the text world(s), leading to a better understanding/exploration of the characters and themes. The analysis reveals how the protagonist, Mrs. Mallard, searches for identity, freedom and the bright future after the husband’s death. This paper attempts to explore the text world in which a feminist character challenges the traditional view of marriage/love in a male-dominated society. The discussion of results and the conclusion shows how traditional observations about the text combined with an analysis of deixis helps readers to create the text world of the story.

‫ﺫﻜﻭﺭﻱ . ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺨﺎﺘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻷﺩﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل ﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬

1 Introduction Kate Chopin (Katherine O’Flaherty) was born on February 8, 1850, Culley (1976: vii). She began writing late in her life. Her first novel, At Fault was published in 1890. It was followed by two collections of short stories:

Dr. Sami Breem

Bayou Folk in 1894 and Arcadia in 1987. After that Chopin worked on a third collection, A Vocation and a Voice (Toth 1991) which included works previously rejected by magazine publishers who felt the work dealt too explicitly with love, sex, and marriage. Chopin's most famous short story The Story of an Hour is included in this collection. The centre of action in the Story is an ill woman who learns of her husband's accidental death. The story examines the woman's reaction to her sudden and unexpected independence/freedom and ends surprisingly when she discovers her husband is actually alive. Her novel The Awakening, now widely read, appeared in 1899. She wrote stories, novels, sketches, and essays which had appeared in the popular and literary magazines of the period. She died in 1904. Fox-Genovese (1999) comments on Chopin as a modernist writer: She was very important as one of the earliest examples of modernism in the United States…She was a pre-eminent stylist and she was as much interested…in how you told the story as the story itself. In that sense_ perspective, point of view, craft, use of imagery, multiple perspectives_ this legacy of appearance in reality which can be seen to come somewhat out of the New Orleans experience that things are not always what they seem and they seem different to different players. All...
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