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Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries Edited by Kazunori Ozawa

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Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries
Edited by Kazunori Ozawa

The Editor Dr. Kazunori Ozawa Enax, Inc. President & CEO 2-11-19 Otowa, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo 112-0013 Japan

All books published by Wiley-VCH are carefully produced. Nevertheless, authors, editors, and publisher do not warrant the information contained in these books, including this book, to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illustrations, procedural details or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate. Library of Congress Card No.: applied for British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.  2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

All rights reserved (including those of translation into other languages). No part of this book may be reproduced in any form – by photo printing, microfilm, or any other means – nor transmitted or translated into a machine language without written permission from the publishers. Registered names, trademarks, etc. used in this book, even when not specifically marked as such, are not to be considered unprotected by law. Printed in the Federal Republic of Germany Printed on acid-free paper Typesetting Laserwords Private Limited, Chennai, India Printing Strauss GmbH, M¨ rlenbach o Binding Litges & Dopf GmbH, Heppenheim Cover Design Adam-Design, Weinheim ISBN: 978-3-527-31983-1

V

Contents
Preface XI XIII

List of Contributors 1 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 1.2.7 1.3

General Concepts 1 Kenzo Matsuki and Kazunori Ozawa Brief Outline of Batteries 1 Galvanic Cell System – Aqueous Electrolyte System 2 Lithium-Cell System – Nonaqueous Electrolyte System 4 Early Development of Lithium-Ion Batteries 5 Ceramics Production Capability 5 Coating Technology 6 LiPF6 as a Salt for Electrolytes 6 Graphite Conductor in the Cathode 6 Using Hard Carbon for the Anode 6 Nonwoven Shut-down Separator 6 Ni-Plated Fe Can 7 Toward a Realistic Goal 7 References 9 Lithium Insertion Materials Having Spinel-Framework Structure for Advanced Batteries 11 Kingo Ariyoshi, Yoshinari Makimura, and Tsutomu Ohzuku Introduction 11 Structural Description of Spinel 12 Derivatives of Spinel-Framework Structure 15 Superlattice Structures Derived from ‘‘Spinel’’ 15 Examples of Superstructure Derived from ‘‘Spinel’’ 20 Electrochemistry of Lithium Insertion Materials Having Spinel-Framework Structure 24 Lithium Manganese Oxides (LMO) 24 Lithium Titanium Oxide (LTO) 27

2

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2

Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries. Edited by Kazunori Ozawa Copyright  2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim ISBN: 978-3-527-31983-1

VI

Contents

2.4.3 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.6

Lithium Nickel Manganese Oxide (LiNiMO) 28 An Application of Lithium Insertion Materials Having Spinel-Framework Structure to 12 V ‘‘Lead-Free’’ Accumulators 29 Twelve-Volt Batteries Consisting of Lithium Titanium Oxide (LTO) and Lithium Manganese Oxide (LMO) 32 Twelve-Volt Batteries Consisting of Lithium...
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