B) the Reasons Why Many Students in Many Higher Educational Institutions in Malaysia Are Facing Problems in Mastering the English Language

Topics: Management, Strategy, Strategic management Pages: 3 (894 words) Published: March 8, 2013
1.Strategic Plans.

To best understand the relationship between the different types of plans, let's start at the top. Strategic plans are designed with the entire organization in mind and begin with an organization's mission. Top-level managers, such as CEOs or presidents, will design and execute strategic plans to paint a picture of the desired future and long-term goals of the organization. Essentially, strategic plans look ahead to where the organization wants to be in three, five, even ten years. Strategic plans, provided by top-level managers, serve as the framework for lower-level planning. Tommy is a top-level manager for Nino's Pizzeria. As a top-level manager, Tommy must use strategic planning to ensure the long-term goals of the organization are reached. For Tommy, that means developing long-term strategies for achieving growth, improving productivity and profitability, boosting return on investments, improving customer service and finding ways to give back to the community in which it operates. For example, Tommy's strategic plans for achieving growth, improving productivity and profitability and boosting return on investments are all part of the desired future of the pizzeria. Strategic plans also tend to require multilevel involvement so that each level of the organization plays a significant role in achieving the goals being strategically planned for. Top-level managers, such as Tommy, develop the organizational objectives so that middle- and lower-level managers can create compatible plans aligned with those objectives.

2.Tactical Plans.

Now that you have a general idea for how organizational planning evolves, let's look at the next level of planning, known as tactical planning. Tactical plans support strategic plans by translating them into specific plans relevant to a distinct area of the organization. Tactical plans are concerned with the responsibility and functionality of lower-level departments to fulfill their parts of the strategic...
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