B Communications

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Q1. List the barriers to effective communication. What are the ways in which an organisation can overcome the barriers to communication?

Ans. There are many reasons why interpersonal communications may fail.  In many communications, the message may not be received exactly the way the sender intended and hence it is important that the communicator seeks feedback to check that their message is clearly understood. There exist many barriers to communication and these may occur at any stage in the communication process.  Barriers may lead to your message becoming distorted and you therefore risk wasting both time and/or money by causing confusion and misunderstanding.  Effective communication involves overcoming these barriers and conveying a clear and concise message.  Some common barriers to effective communication include: * The use of jargon, over-complicated or unfamiliar terms. * Emotional barriers and taboos.

* Lack of attention, interest, distractions, or irrelevance to the receiver. * Differences in perception and viewpoint.
* Physical disabilities such as hearing problems or speech difficulties. * Physical barriers to non-verbal communication.
* Language differences and the difficulty in understanding unfamiliar accents. * Expectations and prejudices which may lead to false assumptions or stereotyping.  People often hear what they expect to hear rather than what is actually said and jump to incorrect conclusions. * Cultural differences.  The norms of social interaction vary greatly in different cultures, as do the way in which emotions are expressed. For example, the concept of personal space varies between cultures and between different social settings.

The ways in which an organisation can overcome the barriers to communication

The main barrier to effective communication is language. If the two parties involved in the communication don't understand each other’s language perfectly then some degree of misunderstanding will take place. A second barrier is distance. In the days before the telephone and the internet it could take many days for a letter to reach its destination. In the middle Ages it could take weeks. Even phone calls need to take into account the time difference between caller and recipient - no-one wants a call in the middle of the night. A third barrier is the reliability of the communication method used. Letters are not always delivered and phone lines or e-mail systems can be down or faulty, causing misunderstanding or delay. A fourth barrier is security. Some communication is secret. This involves the use of codes and cyphers (encryption) for the written word or scrambling for the spoken word in case the messages are intercepted. A final barrier is cost. The volume of mail in Britain increased enormously when the idea of a standard prepayment of one penny was introduced and had dropped off again since cheaper e-mails were made possible. Similarly voice contact by phone has increased enormously since the costs of telephone calls were reduced by the use of communication sattelites and other technology.

Q2. Explain the different types of verbal communication.
Ans. Different Forms of Verbal Communication
 
Verbal communication is used to relay ideas and meet certain communicative goals. Verbal communication can help people better understand each other, but it can also create confusion when people do not communicate effectively. The type of verbal communication that people use can be intentional or may just flow naturally in a conversation without the speaker giving it much thought. * Ambiguous verbal communication occurs when someone says something that can be interpreted in more than one way. This type of communication is often done on purpose, when someone does not want to answer a question directly or when they don't want to be perceived by others as lying. Ambiguous messages are often unsuccessful because they create confusion that hinders...
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