Axia College at University of Phoenix
System and Management of the US and Philippine Correctional systems
The correctional system in United States is managed by the Federal Bureau of Prisons or commonly known as the BOP. It was founded during the year 1930. "The bureau was responsible for the safekeeping, care, protection, instruction, and discipline of all persons charged or convicted of offenses against the United States and before 1930, the operation functioned with little control by Washington" (Clear, Cole, & Reisig, 2010, p. 246). It works under the United States Department of Justice and presently, the agency also manages criminal offenders seized for violation of the ruling of the District of Columbia.
Similar to the US correctional system, the Bureau of Corrections in the Philippines which is known as BuCor is responsible for the custody of lawbreakers against the country. Presently, its operating units are only 7 functioning on a national scale and widely dispersed in different regions particularly the New Bilibid Prison, The Correctional Institution for Women, Sablayan Prison, Leyte Regional Prison, Iwahig Prison and Penal Farm, Davao Prison and Penal Farm, and San Ramon Prison compared to greater than 100 institutions, more than 20 community corrections centers and 6 district centers of US correctional system.
The foremost objective of the BOP is to shield "society by confining offenders in the controlled environments of prisons and community-based facilities that are safe, humane, cost-efficient, and appropriately secure, and that provide work and other self-improvement opportunities to assist offenders in becoming law-abiding citizens" (Bozeman, p. 37). The mission statement of BuCor is tantamount to the Federal Bureau of Prisons of United States. Among its mandate include the locking up of national offenders, making primary needs available, using prisoner workforce to achieve industrial ventures, and financially compensating inmates for participating in government projects and carrying out programs to avert criminal conduct.
The population of criminal offenders incarcerated in Philippine national prisons is 25,002 with only 951 population of female inmates and "there were 8,080 inmates deployed to work in three private entities and in various government offices; inmates hired as banana plantation workers in TADECO received an average of P2,600 monthly compensation" (National Statistical Coordination Board, 2002). The 2 national prison facilities particularly Correctional Institution for Women situated in Mandaluyong City and New Bilibid Prison which is located in Muntinlupa city are reported to be congested given that the women prison facility can only contain 500 inmates while presently it holds more than 900 while the other facility has a limited capacity of 8,700 but it presently holds double of its capacity.
The inmate population of Philippine correctional system is way behind the American correctional system. In the second quarter of the year 2010, Federal Bureau of Prisons possesses more than 200,000 inmates. Similar to the Philippine population, female lawbreakers are fewer than men with only 13,760 whereas the male inmates are more than 196,000. The inmates in the Bureau of Corrections are generally Filipinos unlike the BOP which has diverse nationalities and racial backgrounds consisting of Hispanics, Black Americans, Asians, White Americans, Native Americans and some foreigners coming from Cuba, Mexico and Dominican Republic.
Security Level and Prison life
The security level in the US correctional system comprised of six levels. The categorization system had been established during the second quarter of 1979. The classification highly depends on the number of break outs, imprisonment period, and seriousness of the crime and the record of violent behavior inside the facility. "The security level...