is the responsibility of nature, and not man, to create human beings. Victor has done
something unnatural, he has created life after death, "I have created a monster."
Victor is soon punished for interfering with nature when his own creation turns
against its creator. The monster murders William Frankenstein, Victor's brother; Henry
Clerval, Victor's best friend; and Elizabeth Lavenza, Victor's bride. The Monster kills all
those that are closest in Victor's life in a form of retaliation for Victor's creation of a
monster, one without a companion, one rejected by all of civilization. "I determined to
seek that justice which I vainly attempted to gain from any other being that wore the
human form" (Frankenstein, p.136, line 13). It is the death of Victor's family that
signifies his punishment " I have never seen a man so wretched a condition"
(Frankenstein, p.20). Victor's repentance comes in two parts: when he decides to destroy
his own creation: "I am going to unexplored region, to 'the land of mist and snow;' but I
shall kill no albatross, therefore do not be alarmed for my safety" (Frankenstein, p.15, line
25) and when the blame shifts from Victor to the Monster, and the Monster decides to kill
himself "Cursed, cursed creator! Why did I live?" (Frankenstein, p.132, line 1). The
penance is done by the end of the book and the Monster is removed from civilization.
However, that is not to say that Victor is absolved of his betrayal. Victor is in constant
sorrow for his creation because it caused the death of so many in his life.
In the poem "The Rime of Ancient Mariner," the mariner betrays nature by
murdering the Albatross: "I had killed the bird that made the breeze blow"
(AM, p.08, line 52). The Albatross represents nature. The representation is meaningless
to the mariner until he sees the...