BRAIN STRUCTURES, ETYMOLOGY and FUNCTIONS
(or Frontal Lobe)
|Frontal-1650s, of the forehead; From Modern Latin frontalis, from front-, stem of frons "brow, forehead."
Lobe-Early 15c., "a lobe of the liver or lungs," from Middle French lobe and directly from Medieval Latin lobus, from Late Latin lobus "hull, husk, pod."|The gray matter of the anterior part of the frontal lobe that plays a role in the regulation of complex cognitive, emotional, FFand behavioral functioning.| Temporal Lobe
|Mid-14c., "worldly, secular," later "of time, terrestrial, earthly."|The lower lateral lobe of either cerebral hemisphere, located in front of the occipital lobe and containing the sensory center of hearing in the brain.| Occipital Lobe
|1540s, from Middle French occipital, from Medieval Latin occipitalis, from Latin occiput (genitive occipitis) "back of the skull," from ob "against, behind."|The occipital lobes are positioned at the back region of the cerebral cortex and are the main centers for visual processing.| Parietal Lobe
|Early 15c., "pertaining to the walls of a cavity in the body," from Late Latin parietalis "of walls," from Latin paries (genitive parietis) "wall" (of a building), of unknown origin.|Complex sensory information from the body is processed in the parietal lobe, which also controls the ability to understand language.| Limbic Region|1879, from French limbique (1878, Broca), from limbe, from Latin limbus "edge."| The limbic system is a set of evolutionarily primitive brain structures located on top of the brainstem and buried under the cortex. Limbic system structures are involved in many of our emotions and motivations, particularly those that are related to survival. Such emotions include fear, anger, and emotions related to sexual behavior.| Cerebellum| 1560s, from Latin cerebellum "a small brain," diminutive of cerebrum "brain."| A large projecting part of the brain concerned mostly with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium.| Amygdala
|"The tonsils," 1540s (amygdal), from Latin, from Greek amygdale "almond."|Amygdala is the integrative center for emotions, emotional behavior, and motivation.| Hippocampus
|1600, a kind of sea monster, part horse and part dolphin or fish (they are often pictured pulling Neptune's chariot), from Late Latin hippocampus, from Greek hippokampos, from hippos "horse" + kampos "a sea monster."|This curved ridge is involved in forming, storing, and processing memory.| Thalamus
|1753, "the receptacle of a flower," Modern Latin, from Latin thalamus "inner chamber," from Greek thalamos "inner chamber, bedroom."|The thalamus serves chiefly to relay impulses and especially sensory impulses to and from the cerebral cortex.| Hypothalamus
|1896, coined 1893 in German from Greek hypo- "under" + thalamus "part of the brain where a nerve emerges."|The hypothalamus is the region of the brain that contains a control center for many autonomic nervous system functions such as controlling the pituitary gland. | Corpus Callosum
|1677, New Latin, literally, callous body.
| The large band of fibers that connect the cerebral hemispheres.| Cortex
|1650s, "outer shell, husk," from Latin cortex "bark of a tree". Specifically of the brain, first recorded 1741.|The sheet of neural tissue that is the outermost covering of the brain. | Pons| 1751, "Bridge," in various Latin expressions | The pons relay information between the cerebrum and the cerebellum.| Medulla Oblongata
|Medulla-Hindmost segment of the brain, 1650s, from Latin medulla, literally "marrow" Oblongata- "rather long"| The medulla oblongata is the portion of the brain that controls autonomic functions such as breathing, digestion, hear and vessel function and swallowing. | Neuron
|"A nerve cell with appendages," 1891, from German Neuron, from Greek neuron. Used earlier (1884) for "the spinal cord and brain."|Neurons are one of...
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