B. ALB IS, JR. F. 11ADRONA ALICE P. 11ARINO LEONIDES S. RESPICIO
To the builders of this nightmare Though you may never get to read these words I pity you; For the cruelty of your minds have designed the bel!; If men's buildings are a reflection of what they are, this one portraits tbe ugliness of all humanity. If you only had some compassion! -grafitti written 011 the wall of American State Prison
I. INTROD UCTION
A system is said to be effective if the end is realized with a maximum of success while using a minimum of means. To test, therefore, the effectivity of the prison system, the end or the objective and the means or the strategy availed of to secure the desired end must be examined. This paper attempts to present the working of the prison system, the purpose for which it was established, the methods it employs, and the management strategy being used. It tries to present as candidly as possible conditions inside the prison, the problems, living conditions, activities. And finally, in our modest way, we offer 'some recommendations and proposed solutions.
The group engaged in theoretical as well as empirical research. For the latter the 11unicipal Jail .o f Romblon, Quezon City Jail, Provincial Jail of Batangas and the New Bilibid Prison were utilized as venues as actual investigation. Ten maximum-security prisoners, six medium security-prisoners and five miniJ11um-security .prisoners . were informally interviewed. A pack of cigarettes always helped in eliciting honest and more d~wn to earth answers.
PHILIPPINE PRISON SYSTEM
On the side of the administration, several prisons officials were likewise interviewed. A letter of introduction from the school was required before any information was given. As expected, the inmates and the prison officials had different versions and perceptions about prison life and management. Both sides will be presented and the reader is left to judge whose version is more credible.
A. Definitions For the purpose of this paper, the following definitions are made: Prison - A generic term comprising the places maintained by public authority for the detention of those confined under the legal process, whether the imprisonment is for the purpose of insuring the production of the prisoner to answer in future legal proceedings, or whether it is for the purpose of punishment for an offense of which the person has been duly convicted and for which he has been duly sentenced. Penology - Study of punishment of crime, both in its deterrent and its reformatory aspects; the study of management of prisons. System - A method, or plan, an assemblage of bodies as a connected whole, an organization. Philippine Prison System - The plan or organization of the various prisons, or penal institutions of the Philippines as a whole viewed from the vantage point so that it may be seen clearly and understood readily as it is organized. It should be distinguished from a penal system which may embrace or share of judicial process and may embody even the definition and application of laws and procedures, as well as critical dissertations on various penal theories and philosophies.
1. Brief History of Prisons in General The prison, viewed as an institution for detaining men against their will, originated in the most remote antiquity. It is quite impossible to fix the exact date of the general beginning of imprisonment for crime.! Records, however, show that in the early years, prisons were known to be a place where offenders were tortured and punished. The place was so dirty and uninhabitable as to augment the sufferings of the prisoners. The age of Justinian brought about a new legal principle. Such principle professed that "prisons ought to be used for detention only, but not for punishment. "2 1 BARNES, THE STORY OF...