A Study on
Performance Appraisal & Career Development of Faculties
Indian School of Business & Technology, Chennai
The Oxford English dictionary defines Performance as the “accomplishment, execution, carrying out, and working out of anything ordered or undertaken”. Armstrong and Baron argue that performance is a matter not only of what people achieve, but how they achieve it. And performance is a multidimensional construct, the measurement of which depends on a variety of factors.
Brumbach offers the most precise definition, “Performance means both behaviors and results. Behaviors are also outcomes in their own right and can be judged apart from results”.
From the definition, and interpretations above, it can be argued that performance is not just about outputs, it is also concerned with actions and behaviors demonstrated to achieve given targets.
Performance versus Outcomes
Campbell defines Performance as Behavior. It is something done by the employee. This concept differentiates performance from outcomes. Outcomes are the result of an individual's performance, but they are also the result of other influences. In other words, there are more factors that determine outcomes than just an employee's behaviors and actions.
Determinants of Performance
Individual differences on performance are a function of three main determinants: Declarative Knowledge, Procedural Knowledge and Skill, and Motivation.
Declarative Knowledge refers to knowledge about facts, principles, objects, etc. It represents the knowledge of a given task's requirements.
If declarative knowledge knows what to do, Procedural Knowledge and skill knows how to do it. For example, procedural knowledge and skill includes cognitive skill, perceptual skill, interpersonal skill, etc.
The third predictor of performance is Motivation, which refers to "a combined effect from three choice behaviors—choice to expend effort, choice of level of effort to expend, and choice to persist in the expenditure of that level of effort". It reflects the direction, intensity, and persistence of volitional behaviors.
Different Types of Performance
Performance could be divided in terms of Task and Contextual (Citizenship and Counterproductive) Behaviors. Whereas Task Performance describes Obligatory Behaviors, Contextual Behaviors are behaviors that do not fulfill specific aspects of the job's required role.
Citizenship Behaviors are defined as behaviors which contribute to the goals of the organization through their effect on the social and psychological conditions. Counterproductive behaviors, on the other hand, are Intentional Actions by employees which circumvent the aims of the organization.
The history of Appraisal, certainly in large organizations, has suggested a rather bureaucratic procedure in which subordinates are told ‘How they are doing’ by superiors who expect them to passively accept their judgments. Fortunately, much has changed, and as the role of the manager moves away from ‘Command and Control’ and heads towards ‘Lead and Coach’.
The nature of appraisal has been similarly transformed. It is now recognized as: ▪ a piece of ‘two-way’ rather than ‘one-way’ communication ▪ a process rather than an event
▪ a tool more for development than abstractly rating performance
It is also important to be clear on a couple of things that ‘Appraisal is Not’. First, appraisal is not a disciplinary process or a disciplinary discussion. There are other, separate processes for addressing serious issues to do with a job holder’s conduct or capability, which should be...
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