A Study of Cash Flows Statement

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I. Introduction
The purpose of this paper is to present and explain the statement of cash flows by incorporating the statements No. 95, 102 and 104 that establish standards for cash flows reporting issued by FASB[i]. FASB Statement No. 95 (FAS 95) “Statement of Cash Flows” supersedes APB Opinion No. 19, Reporting Changes in Financial Position, and requires a statement of cash flows as part of a full set of financial statements for all business enterprises[ii] in place of a statement of changes in financial position and classify cash receipts and payments according to whether they stem from operating, investing, or financing activities and provides definitions of each category. FASB Statement No. 102 (FAS 102) amends FAS 95, to exempt from the requirement to provide a statement of cash flows (a) defined benefit pension plans covered by FASB Statement No. 35, Accounting and Reporting by Defined Benefit Pension Plans[iii] , and certain other employee benefit plans and (b) highly liquid investment companies that meet specified conditions. This Statement also requires that cash receipts and cash payments resulting from acquisitions and sales of (a) securities and other assets that are acquired specifically for resale and carried at market value in a trading account and (b) loans that are acquired specifically for resale and carried at market value or the lower of cost or market value be classified as operating cash flows in a statement of cash flows. FASB Statement No. 104 (FAS 104) amends FAS 95 to permit banks, savings institutions, and credit unions to report in a statement of cash flows certain net cash receipts and cash payments for (a) deposits placed with other financial institutions and withdrawals of deposits, (b) time deposits accepted and repayments of deposits, and (c) loans made to customers and principal collections of loans. This Statement also amends FAS 95 to permit cash flows resulting from futures contracts, forward contracts, option contracts, or swap contracts that are accounted for as hedges of identifiable transactions or events to be classified in the same category as the cash flows from the items being hedged provided that accounting policy is disclosed. II. Purpose of a Statement of Cash Flows

The purpose of a statement of cash flows is:
1. To provide relevant information about the cash receipts and cash payments of an enterprise during a period 2. To help investors, creditors, and others to assess;
2.1. The enterprise's ability to generate positive future net cash flows 2.2. The enterprise's ability to meet its obligations, its ability to pay dividends, and its needs for external financing 2.3. The reasons for differences between net income and associated cash receipts and payments 2.4. The effects on an enterprise's financial position of both its cash and noncash investing and financing transactions during the period. So the objectives of standards of financial accounting and reporting is to require the presentation of information about the historical changes in cash and cash equivalents of an enterprise by means of the statement of cash flows which classifies cash flows during the period according to operating, investing and financing activities. III. Focus on Cash and Cash Equivalents

A statement of cash flows explains the changes in cash[iv] (cash on hand and demand deposits) and cash equivalents during a period. Cash equivalents comprise the short-term, highly liquid investments that are (i) readily convertible to a known amount of cash and (ii) that are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. Generally an investment normally meets the definition of a cash equivalent when it has a maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition. Equity investments are normally excluded, unless they are in substance a cash equivalent (e.g. preferred shares acquired within three months of their specified redemption date). Bank overdrafts which are repayable on demand and which form...
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