A Study Guide on Motivation

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202 Study Guide Exam 2


Ways we are motivated, reasons for motivation
*Needs: states of cellular or bodily deficiency that compel drives. IE: Water, Food, Shelter, Oxygen. * Drives: Perceived states of tension that occur when our bodies are deficient in some need. (Drives: Push and Pull)

* Incentive: any external object or event that motivates behavior.

The stress/performance relationship
Push and Pull: drives push us into action Incentives Pull
More stress better performance… until it’s too much stress

Know what homeostasis and set point
Homeostasis: the process by which all organisms work to maintain physiological equilibrium or balance around one optimal set point. Set Point: The Ideal fixed setting of a particular physiological system, such as internal body temperature.

Think about the relationship between motivation and evolution: Evolutionary theory looks at internal drives to explain why people do what they do. Why people do what they do and what has caused them to do this. Drives and Wants.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
From bottom to top: Physiological needs, saftely and security needs, love and belongingness needs, esteem needs, self actualization. The Lower levels must be satisfied before we can focus on achieving self actualization; the full realization s on one’s potentials and abilities in life.

4 kinds of motivation
*Motive to eat
*Motive to drink
* Motive to interact with others
* Motive to engage in sex
(Hunger, Sex, Belong, Excel)

Models of motivation
*evolutionary Model: Looks at internal drives to explain why we do what we do. *drive reduction Model: when our psychological systems are out of balance/depleted we are driven to reduce this depleted state. *optimal arousal Model: higher arousal leads to optimal performance. *Hierarchical Model: pyramid of needs with the most important on bottom.

Three kinds of societies and their sexual attitudes
Restrictive Societies: restrict sex before and outside of marriage Semirestricitve societies: Place formal prohibitions on pre and extramarital sex that are not strictly enforced. Permissive Societies: place few restrictions on sex.


Differences/relationships between emotion, mood, and affective traits Emotions: brief acute changes in conscious experience and physiology that occurs in response to meaningful situations in the persons environment. Moods: Transient changes in affect that fluctuate throughout the day or over several days. Experience physically and psychologically and tend to last longer than most emotions. Affective trait: Enduring aspects of our personalities that se the threshold for the occurrence of particular emotional states.

Basic emotions vs self-conscious emotions
Base Emotions are anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise. They are categories; an emotion family… used throughout all cultures. Self-conscious emotions: Emotions that occur as a function of how well we live up to our expectations, the expectations of others, or the rules set by society. IE Pride Authentic: sense of accomplishment. Hubristic: Full of oneself.

Cultural differences/similarities in emotions
Obvious… some cultures have different reactions to things… death, love , happiness ect. Facial expression. Display rules: learned norms or rules

Environmental reasons/causes of emotion

Death, love, ect.

Biological causes of emotion
*Genetics/ parental Predispositions

Brain areas involved in emotion
* Amygdala- Fear and negative emotions
*Prefrontal Cortex- Most active
*Anterior Cingulate cortex – Memory, recalling imagine emotional experiences *Left Prefrontal Cortex- positive emotions
*Hypothalamus: Pleasure/reward center
*Insula: involved in interception or the perception of sensations arising within the body.

Neurotransmitters involved in emotion
*Dopamine: Pleasure neurotransmitter of the brain
* Serotonin: Controls main emotional states of anger,...
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