Effects of Political Socialization
Political socialization can be defined as the process by which citizenship orientations are transmitted, hence is being conditioned by the shifts in social, political, and economic context at the community level, international levels, and national state. The complexities which characterize the political socialization process and the outcomes become evident during transition periods and upheaval. Having a strong grasp of how socialization process works can provide us with wonderful insights into the changes that occur in the society and how democratic regime is being affected (Mackey, 2008). According to Almond approaches, political socialization does not only give us the insight into the patterns of subculture in a society and political culture, but also provides for us in the socialization process of the society the point where particulars, qualities, and elements are modified. Political socialization can be viewed as a messy and, in some way, elusive process. This is the product where macro and micro level phenomena sets interlock. Basically, fundamental question which underpins macro level political socialization research is how politics transmit attitudes, values, opinions, beliefs, and the behavior to the mass public. In micro level studies, they tend to ask how and why do people become citizens. At the political system level, political socialization is viewed as the means by which politics and other political societies instill appropriate behavior and practices in citizens, members, and residents. They convey patterns that are established of thoughts and action, behaviors and laws, tradition and folks through the agencies, such as education system, families, peer groups, mass media, politician institutions, religious organization, community organizations, and the military (Wirt & Kirst, 1972). At the individual level, political socialization entails the process and patterns by which individuals engage in political development and learning constructing their particular relationships to the political contexts in which they tend to live. Because of political socialization, individuals tend to acquire knowledge about the political system and how it works. They internalize the ideology and society’s political value system, hence come to understand its rituals and symbols (Wirt & Kirst, 1972). However, they become informed about the role of the active and passive members of the politics, and hence are able to participate in civic and political life. Social scientific research has been guided by particular notions of good citizen which severely limit the scope of inquiry. Therefore, it includes the citizen as loyal patriot and subject, the citizen as voter, and the citizen as enlightened community participant. Measures of political knowledge which have been used to label young people as uneducated are overly trivial and simplistic. The dynamic nature of political socialization process is not captured by research which presents stationary snapshots of separate empirical relationships between the well trodden variables. Furthermore, political socialization tends to produce distinct generational patterns that at the same time are riddled with contradictions and subtleties (Mackey, 2008). There is little investigation which has successfully dealt with the underlying causes of historical, generational, or the difference that is time-related in political socialization. However, there is a failure to remember how changes in the structure, nature, and operation of agents over time can fundamentally change the process of socialization. There is a speculation of research that takes into account more than superficially the individual and political level of socialization, and hence examines how the system level factors influence...