—through the analysis of larger patterns and cohesive ties For discourse analysis, we usually analyze two main categories of discourse, the spoken discourse and written discourse. When we analyze a piece of spoken discourse, we will exam the identify of the speaker, the purpose of the utterance, the perlocutionary effect of the utterance, and the context of the utterance. Elements like intonation, tone, and genre of the utterance also are included in the analysis. We can get a close look by the speaking mode presented by Dell Hymes's SPEAKING model. The SPEAKING model is a method to analyze a piece of utterance, in which we, through the analysis of Setting and Scene, Participants, Ends (Purposes, goals, and outcomes), Act Sequence, Key(Cues that establish the "tone, manner, or spirit" of the speech act), Instrumentalities(Forms and styles of speech), Norms, Genre, deconstruct a discourse. As for the written discourse, it is, in some sense, much the same. A text is written within a certain context, aimed at specific readers. The writer’s purpose is realized with the structure and vocabulary used. This can be exemplified by the following list of everyday written texts; instruction leaflet, letter to/from friend, public notice, product label, newspaper obituary, poem, news report, academic article, small ads, postcard to/from friend, business letter.
Though the analyses of written and spoken discourse are the same in some sense, they rely on different methods for exact interpretation. For spoken language, we can rely on visual and aural clues. The clues for written texts are not so obvious. But as the writer produced texts for particular purposes, he or she would employ difference structures. Connections between sentences and ideas are possible because all texts have structure. This structure is created through an overall textual pattern, lexical signals, inter-clause relations, and lexical and grammatical cohesive links. Recognizing this structure and the relations found within the text can be a very effective method for second language learners to improve their understanding. The interpretation of the structure can help their language acquisition. The ability to see how grammar and vocabulary contribute to the linking of the sentences ad ideas not only helps in their comprehension of the language but helps them to develop the ability to use the language in a more fluid manner. Text Patterns
Text patterns are the forms and information sequencing of texts. For a purposeful writing, the writer will employ different methods to organize the information. The purpose of doing so is to achieve better fluency of language and effectiveness of texts. The General-Specific pattern, the Problem-Solution pattern and the Claim-Counter-Claim pattern are the three commonly employed textual patterns. Although one pattern forms the overall organization of a text, quite often other patterns are imbedded within, creating sub-patterns. In G.S. organization, the text begins with a general statement regarding a particular topic followed by a series of specific statements that exemplify, explain, or justify the original statement, ending in a general statement that restates the original statement. As the following figure demonstrates, there are two possible realizations of this pattern.
Figure 1 general specific pattern
General-Specific pattern of “Children Are Influenced by T.V.”
In the sentence 5 of the essay Children Are Influenced by T.V., the writer presented the general statement of the essay. In the general statement, the writer clearly defines the thesis. The thesis is the point of departure, which signifies what the writer will write in the following paragraphs. In some sense, the general statement commands the whole essay. Sentence 6, 11, and 18 are the three specific statements the writer used to exemplify the thesis, or sentence 5. In sentence 18, the thesis of the text is...