1.0 BACKGROUND, PURPOSE AND FOCUS
With the increasing enrollments of students in universities and colleges every year, the issue of university traffic congestion has been severe and triggered much attention, mainly due to its accompanied outcomes, fuel consumption and productivity decline as two of the most notorious ones (Erin 2004, p.465). To release heavy traffic stress, some universities has built more parking lots for more cars to park, while some highly recommend that students ride bicycles to both save space and protect the environment. However, neither trial can be considered successful, because the former one indeed encourages more students to drive, thus making the limited space on campus even more crowded (Erin 2004, p.467), and the latter one meets no significant results, given that neither mandatory regulations nor effective education is implemented to reinforce (Beelen et al. 2008, p.196). Faced with the serious congestion problem and its detrimental consequences, an approach named U-pass program, having been adopted successfully in some universities in the U.S. (Lawrence 2006, p.2-3), is suggested to be carried out among students, faculty and staff members, that is, "universal pass" with which people can enjoy free shuttles during the month after paying a certain amount of U-pass fees, thus motivating more people to take campus buses and reducing probability of single-driving on campus and in essence smoothing the congestion problem.
This social marketing campaign is aimed to facilitate the implementation of the U-pass program in order to improve campus traffic situation. The U-pass program campaign is expected to help reduce cars in Macquarie university district to some extent, especially single-occupancy vehicles, by offering convenient bus service and favorable policies to both students and faculty and staff. The evaluation of this campaign will be carried out by comparing the number and rate of single-occupancy vehicles, which can be observed in parking lots.
This U-pass campaign focuses on the decrease of parking rate for single drivers. Rationale for this focus lies in the facts that large demand of commutes exist and that current bus service is able to burden the transporting mission. Therefore, the U-pass campaign is promoted to encourage students, faculty and staff to commute by campus buses. The Students' Union and the campus administration center are expected to implement this campaign together.
2.0 SITUATION ANALYSIS
2.1 Internal Strengths
The U-pass program has got several merits that deserve carrying out. To start with, money can be saved by using U-pass, composed of the parking fees, oil expenditure fees and necessary bus pass fees. Moreover, the U-pass program provides the golden opportunities for anyone who would like to contribute whatever they can to protect the environment, since the number and rate of students and faculty and staff using single-occupancy vehicles are likely to decline. Finally, students and faculty and staff tend to find their transportation more convenient. For the one thing, the number of cars is reduced and thus making the campus less crowded. For the another thing, the shuttle service eases people's transportation by offering increased mass transit service at reduced rates.
However, there still exist some internal demerits that may influence behaviours and beliefs of students and faculty and staff against accepting the U-pass program voluntarily. Firstly, the U-pass fees are assessed with students' other fees and tuition, which, although relatively small amount, to some extent triggers students' unsatisfactory since they may rather choose to walk to school if they are not too far away from school. Furthermore, people may find it inconvenient to transit many times compared with driving to school if mass transit is a necessity from their living...