In this essay I plan to write a reflective and analytical report as to how all children, taking into account their individual needs, can be included successfully in engaging in mathematical activities and enquiries in the daily numeracy hour. I will focus on the issues of providing a curriculum which can be accessed by all learners, the importance of differentiating the content and delivery of mathematics lessons to suit children with different learning styles and abilities, the tensions between inclusive education and the ideals set out in the National Curriculum and National Numeracy Strategy, the use of classroom resources, classroom organisation and pupils working outside of expectations. I shall also briefly refer to issues surrounding the inclusion of children with dyslexia in the daily numeracy hour.
What is inclusion?
In order to comment on how all children can be included in the daily mathematics lesson, it is first necessary to have an idea of what the term "inclusion" actually means. The definition of inclusion has generated much debate and discussion and is open to personal interpretation but generally concerns "the learning and participation of all students vulnerable to exclusionary pressures, not only those with impairments or those who are categorised as having special educational needs" (Booth, T and Ainscow, M. 2002). This statement illustrates the premise that all children have an equal right to an education that presents them with opportunity for success in the future, regardless of their cultural background, sex, physical or mental disability or intellectual ability.
The National Curriculum (DfES. 1999. pp30-33) states that "schools have a responsibility to provide a curriculum that meets the specific needs of individuals and groups of pupils" It sets out three principles which are essential in developing a more inclusive curriculum, these are: Setting suitable learning challenges
Responding to pupils diverse learning needs; and
Overcoming potential barriers to learning for groups and individuals.
Here we encounter conflict and tension between the National Curriculum's ideology that the needs of all children are addressed. It promotes the idea of progressivism or "child centred learning". Rousseau suggested that "the child should himself dictate the scope and the direction of his education." (Barrow, R and Woods, R. 1988. p.111) This focuses the importance of immersing children in learning opportunities appropriate to themselves as individuals, in order to further their understanding. This is very difficult to put into practice. In a class of thirty children there are thirty distinct individuals. All children will have been exposed to different experiences and so it would be near impossible to implement a totally inclusive curriculum where the learning opportunities are appropriate to all.
Whilst the National Curriculum, along with the QCA Schemes of Work, set out a framework for exactly what children should be taught throughout their time in education, along with the timing of delivery of key concepts, it does not offer explanation as to how they should be taught. This is the responsibility of the class teacher. For us to understand the way in which we can provide learning experiences which will meet the specific needs of all children in a classroom, it is helpful for us to first consider the way in which children learn. Each child, in any given classroom, will respond differently to the strategies and methods which we use to relay information and scaffold their understanding. It is important for teachers to consider children's individual learning styles and how they build cognitive pathways. Howard Gardner outlines a theory of multiple intelligences. He has identified that there are seven distinct...