A Literature Review: Organizational Change for the Period from 2000 to 2012

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Organizational change is a process where organizations going through a transformation revising their mission, structure and strategy to maintain its competitive edge in the eternal market variation. (Moran & Brightman 2001). Organizational Change Management (OCM) are concluded as a framework for the change leader reacting against the force of change and manage the resist to change towards a success of the organizational effectiveness (Sirkin, Keenan & Jackson 2005) . Recent literature review shows that Globalizations(Stace & Dunphy 2001), economy (Hempel & Martinsons 2009) , cultural (Gail 2009), knowledge competency(Coghlan & Coughlan 2004), quality(Bissett 2004), Information technology and Managerial Innovation (Waddell at el 2011) are the major context as a force of change. The aim of this essay is to examine the organizational change literature from 2000 to 2012 especially on the change leader’s skills in OCM across the context and the supplementary skills that vague in the literature additionally extend the new ways of approaching the changes. Study in Stace and Dunphy (2001) research tells that growth in globalization (radical and transformational) leading to cultural changes (Incremental) and demands innovation thinking in total quality management with the aids of information technology and knowledge management. According to Stace and Dunphy (2001) too, the style of change Management(collaborative, consultative, directive or coercive) were collaborated with the scale of change (fine-tuning, incremental adjustment and transformational) .Struckman and Yammarino (2003)’s response model second finding on managing transformational structural change (Core) to be directive but the model insist on supportive management for fine tuning and incremental (peripheral). A database search in Emerald returned 57200 results of journals concerning change approach tells that situational approach adopted in status quo. Despite of the fundamental 4 meta model for planned change formally mentioned, Young (2009)’s Meta Model literature reviews denotes that Dewey’s and Kurt Lewin’s action research model on “Plan-Do-Check-Act” advocates the current meta-analysis inclusive of change resistance management. Active collaboration between employees develop a common awareness of culture diversity in an globalization organization were able to enhance the effectiveness of the employees to archive the mutual organization goal (Coghlan & Coughlan 2004; Schulz 2001), thus Effective collaboration skill is essential for a change leader (Schraeder, Tears & Jordan 2005). A Change leader with strong collaborative skills allows extensive employees’ involvement in major decision to value all mode of input and expertise’s knowledge sharing(Bissett 2004). Wendy (2005) indicates that the level of participants involvement in the change discussion process is parallel with the possibility of a successful change(Wendy 2005) because it is not only an information’s gathering but also reduce employees’ resistance (Goodman et al. 2011). Nevertheless, Jones et al. (2008) denoted that in-depth intensity of communication and consultation activity is differ from executives level to operational level. Thus, change leaders should prioritized in a change strategies on a need-to-know basis to avoid impropriate information leaking to unauthorized level during the collaboration skill utilization. (Waddell, Cummings & Worley 2011). In addition, there is research indicates that strong collaborative skill demonstration is not encouraged for a transformational change or ‘discontinuous change’ but fine-tuning and incremental adjustment(Stace & Dunphy 2001). Due to Society Change today is uncertainty and getting accelerating, (Fullan 2001), the OC occurs are often a transformational change(Wendy 2005). Change Leaders are expected to take quick judgments (Cuddy, Glick & Beninger 2011) and decision to cope with the speed(Gilley, Gilley & McMillan 2011). Nevertheless, coercion...
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