A Hybrid Vehicle Is a Vehicle That Uses Two or More Distinct Power Sources to Move the Vehicle

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A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle.[1] The term most commonly refers to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors. However other mechanisms to capture and utilize energy are included. Power

Power sources for hybrid vehicles include:
* On-board or out-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) * Coal, wood or other solid combustibles
* Electricity
* Electromagnetic fields, Radio waves
* Compressed or liquefied natural gas
* Human powered e.g. pedaling or rowing
* Hydrogen
* Petrol or Diesel fuel
* Solar
* Wind
Vehicle type

A biodiesel hybrid bus in Montreal
Two-wheeled and cycle-type vehicles
Mopeds, electric bicycles, and even electric kick scooters are a simple form of a hybrid, as power is delivered both via an internal combustion engine or electric motor and the rider's muscles. Early prototypes of motorcycles in the late 19th century used the same principles to power it up. * In a parallel hybrid bicycle human and motor power are mechanically coupled at the pedal drive train or at the rear or the front wheel, e.g. using a hub motor, a roller pressing onto a tire, or a connection to a wheel using a transmission element. Human and motor torques are added together. Almost all manufactured Motorized bicycles, Mopeds are of this type.[2] * In a series hybrid bicycle (SH) the user powers a generator using the pedals. This is converted into electricity and can be fed directly to the motor giving a chainless bicycle but also to charge a battery. The motor draws power from the battery and must be able to deliver the full mechanical torque required because none is available from the pedals. SH bicycles are commercially available, because they are very simple in theory and manufacturing.[3] The first known prototype and publication of an SH bicycle is by Augustus Kinzel (US Patent 3'884'317) in 1975. In 1994 Bernie Macdonalds conceived the Electrilite[4] SH lightweight vehicle which used power electronics allowing regenerative braking and pedaling while stationary. In 1995 Thomas Muller designed a "Fahrrad mit elektromagnetischem Antrieb" in his 1995 diploma thesis and built a functional vehicle. In 1996 Jürg Blatter and Andreas Fuchs of Berne University of Applied Sciences built an SH bicycle and in 1998 mounted the system onto a Leitra tricycle (European patent EP 1165188). In 1999 Harald Kutzke described his concept of the "active bicycle": the aim is to approach the ideal bicycle weighing nothing and having no drag by electronic compensation. Until 2005 Fuchs and colleagues built several prototype SH tricycles and quadricycles.[5] Heavy vehicles

Bus Rapid Transit of Metz, a diesel-electric hybrid driving system by Van Hool[6] Hybrid power trains use diesel-electric or turbo-electric to power railway locomotives, buses, heavy goods vehicles, mobile hydraulic machinery, and ships. Typically some form of heat engine (usually diesel) drives an electric generator or hydraulic pump which powers one or more electric or hydraulic motors. There are advantages in distributing power through wires or pipes rather than mechanical elements especially when multiple drives—e.g. driven wheels or propellers—are required. There is power lost in the double conversion from typically diesel fuel to electricity to power an electric or hydraulic motor. With large vehicles the advantages often outweigh the disadvantages especially as the conversion losses typically decrease with size. With the exception of non-nuclear submarines, presently there is no or relatively little secondary energy storage capacity on most heavy vehicles, e.g. auxiliary batteries and hydraulic accumulators—although this is now changing. Submarines are one of the oldest widespread applications of hybrid technology, running on diesel engines while surfaced and switching to battery power when...
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