From 1960s on wards, the income figures revealed the existence of underclass. Before the war, unemployment was the key drive to poverty. Poverty harms the life chances of children. http://newsbbc.co.uk urban poverty and the structure of family has drawn large attention from researchers since mid-1960s and has helped to raise the level of national interest in the problems of central city crystallization of underclass. Migration has raised questions and generated new comings on contribution of the urban migrant to the current problems. From 1960s the underclass, although far better off than their Victorian forbears, were deemed to be in poverty relative to the rest of society be in poverty relative to the rest of society. In the 1970 and 1980 pensioners and lone parents were dominant but 1990s families with children made up the largest group. Joseph Rowntree foundation made a survey in the 1980s and found out that 14% did not own more than one pair of shoes. And 25% were unable to save £10 a month for their retirement. Lack of access to a bank account. http://scholar.google.co.uk Charles Booth made the first survey of poverty in19th century. His research made bring the poverty to the attention of Victorian Britain.
Welfare state reforms
* 1942, Beveridge report; planned a system of National insurance number based in three theories such as family allowances, a national health service and full employment. * 1944, the wartime coalition government commits itself to full employment by Keynesian methods. * 1944, Education Act; free universal secondary school.
* 1945, Family allowance act. The labour government was elected later in 1945. * 1946, National Insurance Act and National Health Service Act. * 1948, National Assistance Act: abolition of the poor law. * 1948, Children Act. (J Poynter,1960,Society and pauperism, Routledge and Kegan Paul)
A History of social policy from the Beveridge report to new labour