SUMMARY OF THE SESSION:
This session (on 29th January, 2009) was primarily focused on understanding how motivation and self-confidence are instrumental in the acquisition and maintenance of expert performance. The session started with definition of motivation as given by Sage (1977), followed by the explanation for different types of motivation and three determinant factors of motivation. It further continued with providing an in-depth understanding of achievement motivation and competitiveness clarifying the definitions by Gill (1983) and Martens (1976), followed by clear understanding of the three main theorie, namely The Need Achievement Theory (Atkinson,1974; McLelland,1961); Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1986); and Achievement Goal Theory (Duda, 1993 & Roberts, 1993). Furthermore, value of task orientation and guidelines to build motivation were explained. Later in the lecture, definition; benefits; and theories of self-confidence were discussed, also highlighting recent research findings in, and strategies for building, self-confidence.
The session concluded with overall summarization that there are several factors that may influence the motivational state of an elite performer, and that previous research in sport psychology suggests a relationship between different types of motivation, self-confidence and achievement but no causal effect has been reliably found suggesting that future research using an integrated approach in an applied setting would be beneficial. This prompted me to dwell deeper, search and read further, the brief summary of which is presented in the following.
Much research in intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has shown that motivation can vary as a function of social and personal factors and that it can influence several types of outcomes (see Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vallerand, 1997, 2001). Vallerand and coworkers (1997, Vallerand, 2001; Vallerand & Perreault, 1999; Vallerand & Ratelle, 2002) proposed the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (HMIEM) with the aim of integrating past intrinsic and extrinsic motivation research as well as leading to novel and testable hypotheses to orient future research. This model addresses the multiple ways to represent motivation in individuals, the structure and functions of these different representations, and their determinants and consequences. It also embraces the elements of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000).
Figure:A hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport and exercise. [Taken from Advances in motivation in sport and exercise, edited by Roberts, G.C. (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics), 263-319]
POSTULATES OF HMIEM:
The HMIEM posits five postulates dealing with the structure, determinants, and consequences of intrinsic and extrinsic and of amotivation (summarized in the following table).
Table:Postulates and Corollaries of the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic
Postulate 1A complete analysis of motivation must include intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. Postulate 2Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation exist at three levels of generality: the global, contextual, and situational levels. Postulate 3Motivation is determined by social factors and top-down effects from motivation at the proximal level higher up in the hierarchy.
Corollary 3.1Motivation can result from social factors that are either global, contextual, or situational depending on the level of generality.
Corollary 3.2The impact of social factors on motivation is mediated by perceptions of competence, autonomy, and relatedness.
Corollary 3.3Motivation results from top-down effects from motivation at the proximal level higher up in the hierarchy. Postulate 4There is a recursive bottom-up relationship between motivation at a given level and motivation at the...