A GUIDE TO ZIMBABWE GOVERNMENT REVENUE
A Toolkit and Guide for Legislators and Civil Society Organizations
This toolkit is meant to equip Legislators and Civil Society Organizations to effectively monitor the Government of Zimbabwe Revenues as part of the broader Budgetary Policy Analysis and input
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
Taxes and the economy
Chapter 2: Government Revenues categories
Definition of Revenue
Types of Government Revenue
Major Taxes charged in Zimbabwe
Major Tax Types
Institutional Framework for Revenue Collection (Zimra)
Consolidated Revenue Fund
Chapter 3: An analysis of all sources of revenue or income for government
Analysis of government revenue (2010 – 2011)
Graphical Analyses of Government Revenues
Graph 1: Contribution to the Zimbabwe Government Revenue: 2010
What to look for when analyzing the revenue in the Budget
Chapter 4: An assessment of the effectiveness and efficiency of all sources of government revenue
Why does tax matter?
Ability to pay principle
Regressive tax examples
The benefit principle
Equity and efficiency in tax enforcement
Tax evasion, tax avoidance and tax delinquency
Tax enforcement efficiency
Chapter 5: The social and economic implications of the various ways of raising government revenue
Taxation and Development
Impact of taxation on economic and social development
Role of taxes in economic development
Chapter 6: Recommendations on other possible sources of revenue for Government.
Parliament can improve the management of mineral resources.
Other ways of raising revenue – compliance
Chapter 7: Conclusion
Chapter 1: Introduction
The purpose of this tool and guide is to equip Legislators, Civil Society Organizations and other interested stakeholders to fully understand how public revenues are raised by the Government, so as to make an informed analysis and judgement on how the Government can transparently and efficiently collect and effectively deploy resources towards government programmes. It will equip the stakeholders with the necessary stamina to confront the relevant arms of Government charged with the management of public resources.
Government revenues are governed by the Public Finance Management Act (Chapter 22:19) whose object is to “secure transparency, accountability and sound management of the revenues, expenditures, assets and liabilities of any entity comprising ministries, corporate bodies and public entities, constitutional entities and statutory funds”. The Treasury (Ministry of Finance) is mandated in terms of section 6 of the Act to control and manage public resources, managing the Consolidated Revenue Fund, determining the manner in which public resources shall be accounted for. Treasury can direct any relevant entity to collect on its behalf any monies due to the State. 1.2 Enabling Legislations
The Public Finance Management Act (Chapter 22:19) of 2009, gives overall authority to the Ministry of Finance to manage and control public resources. The Finance Bill (Act) gives authority for the collection and disbursement of government revenues, as determined each fiscal year, and has to be approved by Parliament after the presentation of the budget by the Minister of Finance. The overall enabling legislation that covers every subsidiary legislation is enshrined in the Constitution of Zimbabwe...
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