Farhana Afreen Proma, Tahera Yesmin, and M. Ahsan Akhtar Hasin Dept. of Industrial and Production Engineering,
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka- 1000, Bangladesh Abstract
The term “Management Loss”, from Total Productive Maintenance or TPM perspective, means the productivity losses in an organization due to delays or impedances caused by human. These include four kinds of losses: losses due to awaiting material, awaiting dolly, awaiting repair and awaiting cleaning. TPM aims to minimize these losses through the proper maintenance schemes. Therefore it is very important to get a proper view of these losses. But human losses are often taken as qualitative losses and their effects are not measured. This study, conducted in an eminent pharmaceutical industry of Bangladesh, presents a structured way of quantifying the management losses under TPM. A way of assessing and comparing the effects of delays was established. Keywords
Awaiting cleaning, Awaiting dolly, Awaiting material, Awaiting repair, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), Management loss.
Total Productive Maintenance or TPM can be proven to be a very effective tool for the improvement of productivity, efficiency of employees and equipments and the overall environment of a company. The prime concern of TPM is more efficient maintenance management, which can only be done through efficient teamwork . That is why, errors and impedances due to human errors are to be minimized or nullified for effective TPM implementation. One of the eight pillars of TPM, Kaizen (the third pillar), pursues efficient equipment, operator, and material and energy utilization. To achieve these goals, 16 major losses have been identified to exist in an organization, of which 5 major losses are the ones that hinder human work efficiency . Among these, the first one is “Management Loss”, which is basically the lost productive time due to waiting for materials, carriers, repair or cleaning. In most cases, inefficient management is responsible for these kinds of losses. This study took an insight into these four kinds of management losses.
A well reputed pharmaceutical company of Bangladesh already practicing GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) had taken interest in implementing Total Productive Maintenance in their factory. One of the prime mottos of the company was monitoring of processes for optimization of manufacturing time without compromising on quality. To achieve these goals and apply TPM effectively, it was very important to figure out the delays and impedances in the process flow occurring due to human errors. The four kinds of management losses were measured and their effects were compared in this study. The study  was conducted in the tablet section of the pharmaceutical industry. 2. Literature Review
Venkatesh  identified sixteen major losses under TPM, of which five were attributed to human productivity losses. Among these five losses, the first one was termed “Management Loss”, which occurs due to waiting for something. Various practical studies on TPM have been done, especially in implementing TPM. Researchers have come up with frameworks and roadmaps of implementing TPM in different industries, most of which inevitably emphasize on skill development of workforce. Hussein Naguib  proposed a roadmap for TPM implementation in semiconductor industries, in which workforce and workplace development was equally underlined. Operators’ skill development was mandatory for autonomous maintenance. Yoon Seng and T. Ramayah  proposed a process oriented strategy in implementing TPM in a Malaysian industry, in which identification of losses and causes was vitally important. The reliability of a TPM implemented system has been taken as percentage of planned production time in a technical report by Pekka Katila . Mckone, Schroeder and Cua  conducted a study in 97...