A Cure Remains Elusive but We Can Still Effectively Combat Hiv

Topics: AIDS, HIV, Immune system Pages: 5 (1341 words) Published: February 18, 2013
Name :Dr Debrah Vambe

Student Number :15933660

Title : Assignment 1
A cure remains elusive but we can still effectively Combat the pandemic

Tables of contentspage

Introduction 1

History of HIV 1

Statistics 1

Difference between cure and treatment 1

Transmission of HIV 1

AIDS vaccine 1

Ways to combat the spread and effect of HIV/AIDS 2

Conclusion 3

“It all started as a rumor, then we found out we are dealing with a disease. Then we realized that it was an epidemic. And now we have accepted it as a tragedy”.Chief Epidemiologist in Kampala Uganda. History of HIV

Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( HIV) is the virus that causes the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). There is evidence that AIDS originated in Africa. A ten year study completed in 2005 found a strain of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) in chimpanzees in South East Cameroon. A complex computer model of the evolution of HIV1 has suggested that first transfer of SIV to humans occurred around 1930`s and HIV 2 transferred from monkeys in Guinea Bissau in the 1940's. Statistics

According to estimated data of UNAIDS 2008,in 2007 approximately 30.8million adults and 2million children were living with HIV, 2,7 million people became infected with HIV, and 2 million died of AIDS.Sub Saharan Africa is more heavily affected by HIV and AIDS than any other region in the world.In 2007, approximately 22million were living with HIV, 1.9million newly infected,1,5million deaths and 12million children orphaned by AIDS.In Zimbabwe with a population of 12,311,143 in 2007, 1,2million were living with HIV, 15,3% were adults (15-49yrs), 57% were women, 120,000 were children with HIV(0-15yrs), and 140000 estimated deaths. Difference between cure and treatment

There are ongoing clinical trials to find the cure for AIDS, at the moment we can only control AIDS progression but not cure it. Cure means that after medical treatment the patient no longer has the particular disease anymore. Treatment help control, lessen or even eliminate the symptoms of a disease. Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are examples of treatments, they control and suppress the disease but do not cure, and they thus improve the quality of life of an individual.Common ARVs include: Zidovudine, Stavudine Lamivudine, Nevirapine, Tenofovir, Efavirenz, Indinavir and ritonavir. Transmission of HIV

There are various ways of HIV transmission which include sexual transmission which can either be heterosexual or homosexual through infected secretions. Also blood transfusion can transmit HIV if the blood is infected. The other methods of transmission include needle stick, mucosal splash with infected body fluids and also in intravenous drug users as well as vertical transmission from mother to child in the womb, at birth or during breastfeeding. AIDS Vaccine

HIV infects a variety of cells of the immune system most importantly the CD4 T helper lymphocytes. Inside the cells RNA of the HIV is converted to DNA by the enzyme called reverse transcriptase. This DNA becomes part of the cells genome resulting in viral proteins being formed that leads to the multiplication of the virus. In the process other CD4...
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