A Critical Analysis
of Advanced Professional Practice Roles In Changing Health Services
There has been a growing concern that health sector needs a huge attention today, not only from government, citizen, but also from many discipline of health care practices. In the recent year, in the United States which is a superpower country, the delivery of human services is still to be a constant puzzle for policy makers, practitioners, and academics (Mayhew, 2012). Health care delivery (including preventive and supportive care) in this country is challenged by demands of access, safety, quality, and cost (Giberson, et. al., 2011). Even though, many years before, these health care issues has been arised as Wilson D.E. stated that the year 1994 was one of great health care non-reform, although national legislation was enacted, states began to seek ways to deal seriously with the issues, primarily the cost, but also the quality of care (Institute of Medicine 25th Anniversary Symposium, 1996). The same thing is happened in the developing country, even worse. Such as in Indonesia, despite solid economic growth in recent years that has raised millions from poverty, Indonesia faces numerous healthcare challenges, from maternal mortality to vector-borne diseases such as malaria to malnutrition, and degenerative diseases associated with a population that is both ageing and living an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. (The Economist Intelligence Unit, 2010). Besides that, most of population in this country lives in rural areas making the delivery of health care services difficult, a system of community health centres is being developed in response to the needs of the rural community (Jacobalis S., 1989). This means that health care matter is still unresolved.
The shortage of healthcare professionals in rural communities is a global problem that poses a serious challenge to equitable healthcare delivery. Both developed and developing countries report geographically skewed distributions of healthcare professionals, favouring urban and wealthy areas, despite the fact that people in rural communities experience more health related problems (Wilson, 2009). These cases have led transdisciplinary health care continues to be at the forefront of patient treatment in the medical arena, in part due to escalating health care costs, an increasing aging population, and the development of multiple chronic diseases (Christie et al., 2007). Nursing is one of those disciplines. This assignment will analyse the roles of nursing within advanced professional practice in relation to changing health services.
The United Kingdom Central Council (UKCC) for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting, now known as Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), defined advanced practice as “adjusting the boundaries for the development of future practice, pioneering and developing new roles responsive to changing needs and with advancing clinical practice, research and education enrich professional practice as a whole” (UKCC, 1994 cited by McGee, 2009). The NMC state that advanced nurse practice (ANP) is highly experienced, knowledgeable and educated members of the care team who are able to diagnose and treat health care needs or refer to an appropriate specialist and who carried out a specific range of activities (NMC, 2005 cited by McGee, 2009). Nurse will always face changing health needs and patterns of care which offer unique opportunities for the nurse-patient interface to become stronger and less fragmented, for the nurse to offer care that is sensitive to the cultural needs of patients, to really make care ‘user centred’ (Bishop & Scott, 2001). It is true that the ANP has emerged over the past decades as health-care systems and governments around the world have come to recognize “that optimizing the nursing contribution to health care through expanding their role is an effective strategy for improving health services” (Schober & Affara, 2006 cited by...
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