A. Constructing and interpreting graphical displays of distribution of univriate data (dotplot, stemplot, histogram, cumulative frequency plot)

1. Center = location Spread = variablility
2. Clusters are isolated groups of data points. Gaps refer to missing areas in a data set. 3. Outliers are extreme values, data points that lie significantly outside other values in a data set. Unusual features are gaps and clusters. 4. Shape = Distribution pattern with data

B. Summarizing distribution of univariate data.
1. Mean = add up data values and divide by number of data values Median = list data vlues in order, locate middle data value
2. Range = Maximum – minimum
Interquartile range (IQR) = Q3 –Q1
Standard deviation is the average distance values fall from the mean of graph. 3. Q1(lower quartile) is the 25th percentile of ordered data or median of lower half of ordered data Median (Q2) is the 50th percentile of ordered data

Q3 (upper quartile) is the 75th percentile of ordered data or median of upper half of ordered data Z scores are standarized standard deviation measurments of how far from the center (mean) a data value falls 4.

5. Add or Subtract- the new location summary statistics (mean, median, min, max, Q1, and Q3) shifts accordingly to the addition (or subtraction) of the constant from the old loaction summary statistics. -The new variation (spread) summary statistics (standard deviation, range, interquartile range) do NOT change from the old variation summary statistics. Measurments of variationare not affected by addition (or subtraction) of a constant. Multiply or Divide- if you multiply or divide a constant number to each value in data set, then -the new location summary statistics (mean, median, min, max, Q1, and Q3) changes by the same multiplication (or division) as calculated on the data set from the old location summary statistics. -The new variation (spread) summary staistics (standard...

...HISTOGRAM
INTRODUCTION
Histogram
* Histograms are graphs of a distribution of data designed to show centring, dispersion (spread), and shape (relative frequency) of the data.
* Histograms can provide a visual display of large amounts of data that are difficult to understand in a tabular, or spreadsheet form.
* A...

...student owned 65. The quartiles for the class were 30, 34 and 42 respectively.
Outliers are defined to be any values outside the limits of 1.5(Q3 – Q1) below the lower quartile or above the upper quartile.
On graph paper draw a box plot to represent these data, indicating clearly any outliers. (7) Jan 2001
2) The random variable X is normally distributed...

...Statistics:
• Science of gathering, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting data
• Measurement taken on a sample
• Type of distribution being used to analyze data
Descriptive statistics:
Using data gathered on a group to describe or reach conclusions about that same group only. Descriptive statistics are the tabular, graphical, and numerical methods used to summarize data.
Collect,...

...Star MP3. To summarize the consumer responses with a frequency table, how many classes would the frequency table have?
4. Two thousand frequent Midwestern business travelers are asked which Midwest city they prefer: Indianapolis, Saint Louis, Chicago, or Milwaukee. The results were 100 liked Indianapolis best, 450 liked Saint Louis, 1,300 liked Chicago, and the remainder preferred Milwaukee . Develop a frequency table and a relative...

...FREQUENCYDISTRIBUTION
WHAT IT IS Frequencydistributions summarize and compress data by grouping it into classes and recording how many data points fall into each class. That is, they show how many observations on a given variable have a particular attribute. For example, a survey is taken of 50 people's favorite color. The frequencydistribution might indicate 15 people...

...Chapter 2
Data Types, DataDisplay and
Summary Statistics
1
Introduction
• Descriptive Statistics vs. Inferential Statistics
•
Descriptive Statistics - Data summarization
•
Inferential Statistics - Use of sample data to make
inferences about a population
parameter.
•
Population: the collection of objects upon which
measurements could be taken.
•
Sample: a subset of the population.
•...

...ON
BOX PLOT
COURSE CODE: URP1251
COURSE TITLE: STATISTICS FOR PLANNERS |
SUBMITTED BY
MEHEDI MUDASSER
110412
SUBMISSION DATE: 09/05/2012
DISCUSSION OF BOX PLOT GRAPH WITH APPROPRIATE EXAMPLES
The box plot goes back to John Tukey, which published in 1977 this efficient method to display...

...Inappropriate?
The analysis of data begins with descriptive statistics such as the mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation, variance, standard error of the mean, and confidence intervals. These statistics are used to summarize data and provide information about the sample from which the data were drawn and the accuracy with which the sample represents the population of interest. The mean, median, and mode are measurements of the “central...

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