Schizophrenia (from the Greek roots skhizein ("to split") and phrēn, phren- ("mind") is a severe mental illness characterized by a variety of symptoms including but not limited to loss of contact with reality. Schizophrenia is not characterized by a changing in personality; it is characterized by a deteriorating personality. Simply stated, schizophrenia is one of the most profoundly disabling illnesses, mental or physical, that the nurse will ever encounter (Keltner, 2007). There are five subtypes of schizophrenia respectively the paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual types. Schizophrenia undifferentiated is the type of schizophrenia wherein characteristic symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviour, and negative symptoms) are present, but criteria for paranoid, catatonic, or disorganized subtypes are not met. Schizophrenia is not a terribly common disease but it can be a serious and chronic one. Worldwide about one percent of the population is diagnosed with schizophrenia. About 1.5 million people were diagnosed with schizophrenia around the world. (www.mentalhelp.net). Ninety-five percent (95%) suffer a lifetime; thirty-three percent (33%) of all homeless Americans suffer from schizophrenia; fifty percent (50%) experience serious side effects from medications; and ten percent (10%) kill themselves (Keltner, 2007). According to study done 697,543 out of 86,241,697 of Filipinos or approximately 0.8% are suffering from schizophrenia (cureresearch.com). In Davao City, Dr. Padilla said that the Davao Mental Hospital receives an average of eight to 10 patients a day suffering from schizophrenia, depression and bi-polar illnesses (www.positivenewsmedia.net). Schizophrenia ranks among the top 10 causes of disability in developed countries worldwide. Schizophrenia is a disease that typically begins in early adulthood; between the ages of 15 and 25. Men tend to get develop schizophrenia slightly earlier than women; whereas most males become ill between 16 and 25 years old, most females develop symptoms several years later, and the incidence in women is noticeably higher in women after age 30. The average age of onset is 18 in men and 25 in women. Schizophrenia onset is quite rare for people under 10 years of age, or over 40 years of age (www.schizophrenia.com). During the BSN-3 community exposure at the Rural Health Unit of Barangay Central last January 3 – February 3, 2011, the group found a creditable case sensible to be presented as case presentation as suggested by their Clinical Instructor Marcelino S. Digal, RN and was agreed by whole group. The patient, Rosanna, not her real name, was one of the constituents of the said barangay. She was observed to be having schizophrenia of the undifferentiated type. Such condition was said to be preceded by postpartum psychosis which in accordance to her younger sister, Adelaida, started to haunt and taunt her after she delivered her third and last child Rafael. The group chose Rosanna as their subject primarily because her case posed as a very intricate case requiring due understanding and knowledge. As such, studying her case would be a good avenue to broaden the proponents’ knowledge about the mental illness involved.
The BSN-3 nursing students of Institute of Nursing and Health Care of Davao Oriental State College of Science and Technology formulated the following objectives - the general and specific - to be able to understand further the concept of Psychiatric Nursing with the mental illness involved. Furthermore, these objectives will aid the group in making an ordered and comprehensive form of case study so as to widen their insights regarding mental disorders and enhance their nursing skills when rendering care and catering the needs of mentally-challenged patients. Specific Objectives:
Specifically, this case study aims to:
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