In the process of management, managers are trying varieties ways to promote the productivity and the efficiency of the organization. And in the varieties of ways, Maslow’s needs theory of motivation is one of the most popular. The managers motivate employees by their needs. In this essay, I will mainly talk about the needs theories of motivation of Maslow and its criticism from others.
Introduction to the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Eupsychian Management Maslow proposed his hierarchy of needs in his paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” and it is a psychological theory focused on human’s basic needs. Maslow has set up a hierarchy of five levels of basic needs. Beyond these needs, higher levels of needs exist. These include needs for understanding, esthetic appreciation and purely spiritual needs. In the levels of the five basic needs, the person does not feel the second need until the demands of the first have been satisfied, nor the third until the second has been satisfied, and so on. Maslow's basic needs are as follows: Physiological Needs
These are biological needs. They are the strongest needs because if a person were deprived of all needs, the physiological ones would come first in the person's search for satisfaction. Safety Needs
When all physiological needs are satisfied and are no longer controlling thoughts and behaviors, the needs for security can become active. Needs of Love, Affection and Belongingness
When the needs for safety and for physiological well-being are satisfied, the next class of needs for love, affection and belongingness can emerge. Maslow states that people seek to overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation. Needs for Esteem
When the first three classes of needs are satisfied, the needs for esteem can become dominant. These involve needs for both self-esteem and for the esteem a person gets from others. Humans have a need for a stable, firmly based, high level of self-respect, and respect from others. Needs for Self-Actualization
When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, then are the needs for self-actualization activated. Maslow describes self-actualization as a person's need to be and do that which the person was "born to do." Based on his hierarchy, he proposed his “Eupsychian Management” idea in 1965 referring to the ideal management. The enlightened management reflects a great trust in employees and assumes that every worker prefers to be a prime mover rather than a passive helper. Based on his observations at NLS, Maslow wrote his book Maslow on Management, and described the necessary conditions to be provided for workers to enable them to reach a point of selfactualization and become more productive. He listed 36 principles of enlightened management in that book. (Ceylan Cizmeli, 2007) With his theory, managers do improve the level of the management and the efficiency of the employees have been raised somehow. However, there are some opposite views of his opinion and still he himself was critical to some use of his “Eupsychian Management”.
Criticisms of Maslow’s theories
One of the main problem of Maslow’s hierarchy of need is that there’s no clear and strong statistical evidence to support it and a misplaced of level of hierarchy. As a consequence, a lot of criticism is on this problem. Among all the criticisms, Wahba and Bridgewell were two main. They that there’s few evidence for the ranking of needs Maslow described, or even for the existence of a definite hierarchy at all. As they said in their paper: “The uncritical acceptance of Maslow's need hierarchy theory despite the lack of empirical evidence is discussed and the need for a review of recent empirical evidence is emphasized. A review of ten factor-analytic and three ranking studies testing Maslow's theory showed only partial support for the concept of need hierarchy. A large number of cross-sectional studies showed no clear evidence for Maslow's deprivation/domination proposition...