A Brief Account on Andre Lefevere’s Manipulation Theory
Abstract: In 1990s,there was a wave breakthrough in translation theory made by Andre Lefevere and Susan Bassnett. They went beyond the word-to-word or text level in translation studies and developed it to culture studies, later termed by Mary Snell-Hornby as ‘cultural turn’. This article mainly deals with one kind of culture turn put forward by Andre Lefevere, that is, translation as rewriting. 中国论文网 http://www.xzbu.com/5/view-2131279.htm
Key Words: cultural turn; rewriting; ideology; patronage; poetics 中图分类号: I06文献标识码:D 文章编号:1006-026X(2009)-14-0168-02
In the year 1990,after the publishing of the book named Translation, History and Culture co-authored by Susan Bassnett and Andre Lefevere, the concept of “cultural turn ”has been firstly raised. Thus, a lot of translators were deeply enlightened and encouraged, and they made some breakthroughs in the field of translation studies. Another school of western translation theory is formed, that is, cultural school.
2. Foundation and Development
In1970s,the Israeli scholar Itamar Even-Zohar developed polysystem theory from the ideas of Russian Formalist School. Afterwards, Shuttleworth and Cowie defined it as: The polysystem is conceived as a heterogeneous, hierarchized conglomerate (or system)of system which interact to bring about an ongoing, dynamic process of evolution within the polysystem as a whole. Polysystem theory has broken through the traditional descriptive mode and see literary translation as a part of the social, cultural, literary and historical framework. It makes translation studies develop from a static in linguistic analysis of shifts and one-to-one equivalence into an investigation of the position of translated literature as a whole in the historical and literary system of the target culture, that is, it makes translation studies develop from static to dynamic. After co-working with his teacher Even-Zohar, Toury explores a systematic descriptive branch of the discipline to replace the isolated ones, which is called descriptive translation studies (DTS).He defined it as one of the two subdivisions of pure translation studies. The aim of this area is “to describe the phenomena of translating and translations as they manifest themselves in the world of our experience.”
3. Brief Account of the Key Concepts and Terms Key Concepts
Lefevere remains the basic concepts of Russian Formalism which believe that the target text is seldom separated from the literary criticism. As for Lefevere, translation must be dominated by the ideology and poetics of the translator or the people involved in power positions, which cannot reflect the source text faithfully. Thus, he claims that “the same basic process of rewriting is at work in translation historiography, anthologization, criticism, and editing.” While rewriting is equal to manipulation which functions as an effective means to serve for power. In his book, translation is quite a central concept: Translation is the most obviously recognizable type of rewriting, and…it is potentially the most influential because it is able to project the image of the author and/or those works beyond the boundaries of their culture of origin.(Lefevere,1992a:9) However, Lefevere is by no means to say there are some treacherous and craft “rewriters” who betray the source text. On the contrary, according to his point, most of such kind of “rewriters”are quite sincere and they consider what they have done is the only way to deal with the source text. Now that they are in the same cultural background and want to make some influence on the evolving process of the culture, they have no alternatives. And it’s quite normal to have the will of influencing the culture. It’s very obvious to view such kind of manipulation of the source text which is under the influence of ideology and poetics in totalitarian...
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