A and P Review
1. Be able to identify what the following does to ventilation: a. Increased body temp – Increased Respirations
b. Irritant reflex is activated- cough sneeze bronchoconstriction (reflex vegal response) c. Sudden pain- apnea
d. Strong emotions- respirations increase
e. Foreign matter in the trachea-
2. Be able to identify the center or reflex that allows conscious, voluntary control over breathing. 3. Know what the carotid sinus and aortic baroreceptors do.
4. Know what the involuntary diaphragmatic spasm followed by sudden glottis closure is. 5. Know what age group the Hering-Breuer reflex is most important in and what the reflex does. Lung inflation. Permits expiration to occur 6. Know where peripheral proprioceptors are located.
7. Know what the primary stimulus of the peripheral chemoreceptors is. 8. Know what portion of the brain does the following:
a. Controls the rhythmicity of respiration – dorsal respiratory group and ventral respiratory groups.- ( medullary respiratory centers) b. Triggers inspiration- (VRGs) specialized nerons
c. Coordinates rate, depth, and rhythm- (VRGs)
d. Smooths the transition between inspiration and expiration e. Relays information from the chemoreceptors to the VRG- DRGs 9. Know about how often the VRGs expiratory neurons fire per minute in a healthy adult. -12-15 10. Know what will happen to ventilation when an overdose occurs. Gasping breaths and severe hypoxemia 11. Know where the VRG and DRG is located.
VRG- bilaterally in two areas of the medulla.
DRG- dorsally to the posterior region of medulla oblongata near root of cranial nerve IX
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