Ivan Pavlov’s method of conditioning, in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus
2. What is a conditioned stimulus? Unconditioned stimulus? Unconditioned stimulus – a stimulus that automatically elicits a response, as meat causes salivation. Conditioned stimulus – a previously neutral stimulus that has been associated with a natural (or unconditioned) stimulus
3. What is an unlearned stimulus? Unlearned response?
4. What was the unconditioned stimulus in Pavlov’s experiment? Food.
5. What was the conditioned stimulus in Watson’s experiment with Little Albert? White lab rat.
6. If something is “extinguished”, what happens to the response? A behavior that previously has been extinguished begins to reoccur for no reason. 7. What is operant conditioning?
conditioning that results from the individual’s actions and the consequences they cause 8. What is reinforcement?
something that follows a response and strengthens the tendency to repeat that response
9. How did Mary Cover Jones treat phobias?
She could extinguish a phobia using learning principles.
She placed a rat in a cage in the same room as the child but fed him candy while the cage came closer to the child. Later, the child changed his fear of the rat with positive feelings associated with candy. 10. What do secondary reinforcements represent?
Anything that comes to represent a primary reinforcer, such as money
11. Give an example of negative reinforcement.
If the floor of a cage gives an animal a shock and the animal learns to push a bar in order to stop the electricity, this is negative reinforcement; it strengthens a response (bushing the bar). 12. Give an example of punishment.
Fined for a traffic violation.
13. Define variable ratio, variable interval, fixed ratio, and fixed interval. Variable ratio schedule – schedule in which reinforcement occurs after...