Zoology Notes

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Bio 221

Intro
Zoology: is study of animal’s life.
I. Zoology- study of animal life
a. Basic characteristics of animals
i. Multicellular organisms
ii. Bodies consist of eukaryotic cells
iii. Cells have no cell walls
iv. Heterotrophic
1. Don’t photosynthesize or make their own food II. 9 major phyla, approximately 20 minor phyla
b. Most animals are invertebrates
III. Zoology is a branch of science
c. Science is defined by its method, not its subject matter d. Science doesn’t “prove” things
v. Science proposes ideas, attempts to disprove them vi. Ideas are open to revision
vii. Goal is objectivity
IV. How do we “do” science?
e. Scientific method
viii. Observation
ix. Hypothesis
x. Experimentation
xi. Revision
xii. Conclusion
xiii. Hypothesis becomes theory
f. Science is a general process of problem solving
xiv. Flexible
g. Sequence of steps or testing method may vary, but all scientific ideas must be thoroughly tested and critiqued V. Types of scientific inquiry
h. Experimental science
xv. Variables are manipulated
2. Independent: variables that are manipulated
3. Dependent: variables that are measured
xvi. Control experiments
4. Independent variables aren’t manipulated
5. Allow comparison
6. Help eliminate other causes for the results
i. Naturalistic/comparative science
xvii. Hypothesis tested by observing, measuring, and comparing xviii. No variables are manipulated
xix. Used to study things that the researchers can’t manipulate 7. Too large, small, past events
VI. Hypothesis vs theory
j. Hypothesis- ideas that haven’t been thoroughly tested xx. Must be testable
xxi. Must be falsifiable
8. Identify data that make it false
k. Theory- often tested and never rejected hypotheses that explain many related phenomena xxii. Accepted as fact, foundation of ongoing research, can be rejected if new data says that the theory is false

Ch. 1 Animal Evolution
I. Cladograms- family trees of animals
a. Evolution- any change in allele frequency in a population over time i. Allele frequency- how rare/ common certain alleles (versions of genes) are in a population ii. Changes may be random or non-random (environment driven) iii. Microevolution- changes that occur within a species iv. Macroevolution- development of new species from existing species 1. Speciation

II. Important contributors to evolutionary theory
b. Lamark
v. Lamarkism: the first scientific hypothesis for evolution vi. Inheritance of acquired characteristics: organisms, by striving to meet the demands of their environments, aquire adaptations and pass tehm by heredity to their offspring c. Lyell

vii. Uniformitarianism
2. The laws of physics and chemistry have not changed throughout Earth’s history 3. The past geological events occurred by natural processes similar to those we observe in action today d. Darwin

viii. Theory of evolution
4. Perpetual change: the living world is neither constant nor perpetually cycling, but is always changing 5. Common descent: all forms of life propagated from a common ancestor through a branching of lineages 6. Multiplication of species: evolution produces new species by splitting and transforming older species 7. Gradualism: large differences in anatomical traits that characterize different species originate by accumulation of many small incremental changes over very long periods of time 8. Natural selection: natural process by...
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