Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) is considered the "father of zoology." His contributions to zoology include vast quantities of information about the variety, structure, and behavior of animals; the analysis of the parts of living organisms; and the beginnings of the science of taxonomy.1 Hippocrates (460–377 BC), the "Father of Medicine", used animal dissections to advance human anatomy.6 Democritus of Abdera (470–370 BC) made dissections of many animals and humans. He was the first Greek philosopher-scientist to propose a classification of animals, dividing them into blooded animals (Vertebrata) and bloodless animals (Evertebrata). He also held that lower animals had perfected organs and that the brain was the seat of thought.5 Anaximander (610 BC–545 BC) thought that first life was formed by spontaneous generation in the mud. Later animals came into being by transmutations, left the water, and reached dry land. According to him, man was derived from lower animals, probably aquatic. His writings, especially his poem On Nature, were read and cited by Aristotle and other later philosophers, but are lost.17 Empedocles of Agrigentum (504–433 BC) reportedly rid a town of malaria by draining nearby swamps. He proposed the theory of the four humors and a natural origin of living things.18
Galen of Pergamon (c.130 AD - c.210 AD)
Galen’s principal interest was in human anatomy, but Roman law had prohibited the dissection of human cadavers since about 150 BC Because of this restriction, Galen performed anatomical dissections on living (vivisection) and dead animals, mostly focusing on pigs and primates. This work turned out to be particularly useful because in most cases, the anatomical structures of these animals closely mirror those of humans.2
Albertus Magnus (1193?-1280) translated version of "On animals, a medieval summa zoology. Pay close attention to this because Aristotle's treaty De Animalibus has the same title but they are two...