Zero is a number and a digit used in mathematics to represent that number in numerals. Zero is not a natural number but it is the smallest whole number. There are two important uses of zero. Firstly, in place value number system it is used as empty place indicator. Hence, in this number, 5102, the positions of 5 and one are correct just because of the inclusion of zero. Five is denoting a thousandth place value. Similarly if we omit zero from 5102 that is 512, then 5 denote a hundredth place value. Thus, it shows a notable difference. Secondly zero is a number itself which we use in the form of 0 (Robertson, 2000). Zero is the smallest whole number. The whole numbers greater than zero are called positive integers, whereas, the whole numbers less than zero are referred to as negative integers. Zero is an integer itself but it is neither positive nor negative. Therefore, in early times, the concept of zero was the harder to accept than negative numbers as people were aware of the loss and debt which is a negative phenomenon. But historically, in many cultures, zero was identified before the acceptance of the negative numbers. It leads to a conclusion that if zero is not there than there is no concept of negative numbers. In stock market, the value of the stock can be determined through the concept of integers (Biello, 2011). For example, a stock was purchased at a price of $36.13 and it was sold at $37.01, the change in price of that particular stock is $0.88 in positive which is a gain for the seller (initial stock holder). Another example is rising and falling of temperature. In winter season or at night the temperature falls and starts moving towards zero or less than zero. On the other side, the temperature rises and moves positively during summer.

...Zero in MathematicsZero as a number is incredibly tricky to deal with. Though zero provides us with some useful mathematical tools, such as calculus, it presents some problems that if approached incorrectly, lead to a breakdown of mathematics as we know it.
Adding, subtracting and multiplying by zero are straightforward.
If c is a real number,
c+0=c
c-0=c
c x 0=0
These facts are widely known and regarded to hold true in every situation.
However, division by zero is a far more complicated matter. With most divisions, for example,
10/5=2
We can infer that
2 x 5=10
But if we try to do this with zero,
10/0=a
0 x a=10
Can you think of a number that, when multiplied by 0, equals 10? There is no such number that we have ever encountered that will satisfy this equation.
Another example will emphasise the mysteriousness of dividing by zero.
One may assume that
(c x 0)∕0=c
The zeroes should cancel, as would be done with any other number. But since we know that
c x 0=0
it follows that
(c x 0)/0=0/0=c
This does not seem to make sense. This also means that
1=0/0=2
1=2
since 1 and 2 are both real numbers. Actually, this means that 0/0 is equal to every real number!
In effect, there is no real answer to a division by zero. It cannot be done.
In fact, if we could divide by zero, it...

...History of mathematics
A proof from Euclid's Elements, widely considered the most influential textbook of all time.[1]
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.
Before the modern age and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical developments have come to light only in a few locales. The most ancient mathematical texts available arePlimpton 322 (Babylonian mathematics c. 1900 BC),[2] the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 2000-1800 BC)[3] and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 1890 BC). All of these texts concern the so-calledPythagorean theorem, which seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry.
The study of mathematics as a subject in its own right begins in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, who coined the term "mathematics" from the ancient Greekμάθημα (mathema), meaning "subject of instruction".[4]Greek mathematics greatly refined the methods (especially through the introduction of deductive reasoning andmathematical rigor in proofs) and expanded the subject matter of mathematics.[5] Chinese...

...was no zero. Of course people knew if they had nothing, but there was no mathematical notation for it. Zero was independently invented only three times.
The first recorded zero is attributed to the Babylonians in the 3rd century BC. A long period followed when no one else used a zero place holder. But then the Mayans, halfway around the world in Central America, independently invented zero in the fourth century CE. The final independent invention of zero in India was long debated by scholars, but seems to be set around the middle of the fifth century. It spread to Cambodia around the end of the 7th century. From India it moved into China and then to the Islamic countries. Zero finally reached western Europe in the 12th century.
In today's modern mathematics, we have become accustomed to zero as a number. It's hard to believe that most ancient number systems didn't include zero. The Mayan civilization may have been among the first to have a symbol for zero. The Mayas flourished in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico about 1300 years ago. They used the as a placeholder, in a vertical place-value system. It is considered one of their cultures greatest achievements.
The ancient Egyptians, Romans, and Greeks alike had no symbol for zero. In Greek geometry, zero and irrational numbers were...

...mother of Europe's languages. India was the mother of our philosophy, of much of our mathematics, of the ideals embodied in Christianity... of self-government and democracy. In many ways, Mother India is the mother of us all."
- Will Durant, American Historian 1885-1981
Mathematics is an important field of study. Mathematics is essential as it helps in developing lots of realistic skills, in fact study of mathematics itself include the concepts related to the routine lives of human. It not only develops mathematical skills and concepts, it also helps in developing the attitudes, interest, and appreciation and provides opportunities to develop one’s own thinking. So, mathematics is undoubtedly a discipline which is imperative to know and study. Figure 1 clearly specifies all the skills that are developed by the mathematics. Mathematics starts from simple things and linear thinking that lead towards the more complex things and higher order thinking skills. Mathematics has taken centuries to develop in its present form and that’s why it will be really fruitful to know about its development.
Fig. 1, Importance of MathematicsC:\Users\naveen\Desktop\Untitled.png
Mathematics has played a very significant role in the progress and expansion of Indian culture for centuries. Mathematical ideas that originated in the Indian subcontinent have had a...

...Week 5
Final Exam
Continuous schedule from Friday , November 1st. 9am until Saturday , November 2nd., 23:59pm.
Monday, November 4, 2013
20%
100%
To obtain the opportunity to take your final exam you should have delivered at least 6 activities.
Please keep this Agenda at hand so that you can deliver you assignments on time.
Greetings,
Blanca Alanís
Posted by: BLANCA HILDA ALANIS PENA
Posted to: CEL.HI09107V.343.13320 Inglés VII
Bibliography
Posted on: Thursday, October 3, 2013
Hello guys,
The books we are going to use are:
Text book:
Richards, Jack C. & Sandy, Chuck (2009). Passages 2 (2nd ed.). New York, N.Y. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 978-0-521-68391-3
Workbook:
Richards, Jack C. & Sandy, Chuck (2009). Passages 2 (2nd ed.). New York, N.Y. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 978-0-521-68393-7
Make sure they are the 2nd. edition, because the 1st. edition is completely different.
In your course, in the Bibliography Section you have a link of a bookstore where you can buy the books. You can try other bookstores in your city, of course, but they don't usually have the book in stock.
Greetings,
Blanca Alanís
Posted by: BLANCA HILDA ALANIS PENA
Posted to: CEL.HI09107V.343.13320 Inglés VII
Grading in the courseWeek 5
Final Exam
Continuous schedule from Friday , November 1st. 9am until Saturday , November 2nd., 23:59pm.
Monday, November 4, 2013
20%
100%
To...

...concrete model.
Looking on the locality of the paper, I highly acknowledge the fact that the researchers described the current state of math education in the Philippines. They emphasized the fact that we are more focused on procedural knowledge rather than the more desired conceptual knowledge. That is our disadvantage because we usually train students to perform math without understanding or making connections on what they are doing. By mentioning this, the readers would really have an idea that the paper itself could be a solution to the problem mentioned. Moreover, it makes the thesis more realistic.
To sum up everything that was tackled, I could say that the thesis served to have an important purpose in the current state of Mathematics Education in the Philippines. It is very informative and feasible. Since it is a small study because it only involved 6 average students, we could propose more studies rooting from this which would have a bigger scope such as implementing the same study but now comparing it to the results gathered from high and low performing students....

...HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS
The history of mathematics is nearly as old as humanity itself. Since antiquity, mathematics has been fundamental to advances in science, engineering, and philosophy. It has evolved from simple counting, measurement and calculation, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects, through the application of abstraction, imagination and logic, to the broad, complex and often abstract discipline we know today.
From the notched bones of early man to the mathematical advances brought about by settled agriculture in Mesopotamia and Egypt and the revolutionary developments of ancient Greece and its Hellenistic empire, the story of mathematics is a long and impressive one.
Prehistoric Mathematics
The oldest known possibly mathematical object is the Lebombo bone, discovered in the Lebombo mountains of Swaziland and dated to approximately 35,000 BC. It consists of 29 distinct notches cut into a baboon's fibula. Also prehistoric artifacts discovered in Africa and France, dated between 35,000 and 20,000 years old, suggest early attempts to quantify time.
The Ishango bone, found near the headwaters of the Nile river (northeastern Congo), may be as much as 20,000 years old and consists of a series of tally marks carved in three columns running the length of the bone. Common interpretations are that the Ishango bone shows either the earliest known...