Zakat is considered to be a religious duty, and is expected to be paid by all practicing Muslims who have the financial means (nisab). In addition to their zakat obligations, Muslims are encouraged to make voluntary contributions (sadaqah). The zakat is not collected from non-Muslims, although they are sometimes required to pay the jizyah tax. Al-Qur'an does not provide specific guidelines on which types of wealth are taxable under the zakat, nor does it specify percentages to be given. Traditionally, the goods taxed are those that were the basis of most wealth in seventh-century Arabic kingdoms: agricultural goods, precious metals, minerals, and livestock. The amount collected varies between 2.5 to 20 percent, depending on the type of goods being taxed. Many Shi'ites are additionally expected to pay one fifth of their income in the form of a khums tax, which they consider to be a separate ritual practice. The Qur'an does not provide specific guidelines on who is to collect the tax, nor was the tax even specified.
Today, in most Muslim countries, zakat is collected through a decentralized and voluntary system, where eligible Muslims are expected to pay the zakat based on worship and love of God. Under this voluntary system, zakat committees are established, which are tasked with the collection and distribution of zakat funds. In a handful of Muslim countries – including Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan – the zakat is obligatory, and is collected in a centralized manner by the state. In Jordan, Bahrain, Kuwait, Lebanon, and Bangladesh, the zakat is regulated by the state, but contributions are voluntary.
2.Disbursement of funds
There are eight categories of people (asnaf) who qualify to receive zakat funds, according to the Al- Qu'ran, those living in absolute poverty (Al-Fuqarā'), those who were restrained because they cannot meet their basic needs (Al-Masākīn), the zakat collectors themselves (Al-Āmilīna 'Alaihā), non-Muslims who...