Our world is a big global village. With the opening up of the world economy resulting in free movement of youth, both within their countries & across the nations for better education , better jobs , better quality of life ,migration, both internal and international ,has emerged as a burning issue. Migration is a multi-dimensional,transnational,multicultural issue.It is acomplex problem.It is not a simple demographic or economic problem; there are socio-psycological,cultural,ethnic,legal issues involved. The issue of migration needs to be examined in a holistic manner.
In today’s world, knowledge is power and Information is the key to success. In most third world & developing nations, the youth is rural and semi-urban areas are confronted with poor educational Infrastructure. In Indian context, there are broadly three types of schools- (i) schools having teachers and children but no buildings or insufficient classrooms,(ii) schools having buildings and students, but no teachers ,(iii) schools having buildings and teachers ,but no students because of non-availability of quality teachers , educational tools & equipments. The colleges in these areas are no better. Next is lack of quality technical &vocational education, lack of qualified science teachers, scientific tools, equipments and other educational infrastructure. Lack of quality educational infrastructure in rural &semi-urban areas in most Third world & Developing nations focus the mere ambitious modern rural youth to migrate to schools & colleges in cities & metropolis.
More than 75% of rural population is dependent on agriculture, but ironically agriculture is neither remunerative nor sustainable. For example, 75% of land in rural India is owned by 5% of landlords, big farmers & absentee landlords. Shoddy land reforms fragmentation of land leading to uneconomic size of land holidays ,lack of modernization & commercialization of agriculture, further marginalization of marginal farmers have forced modern youth to move to urban areas for better education ,better employment opportunities & better quality of life.
The factors that drive migration of youth from rural to urban areas at the micro-level are more or less the same that determine migrant motives at the International level .Better education, better employment opportunities, better vertical and horizontal mobility in job situations, more lucrative pay packets , better quality of life and increasing aspirations of the youth in a liberal free economic world are the migrant motives . The number of young students from Third World countries & Developing economies like India & China in American & Western Universities has quadrupled over the last two decades. For some a foreign degree is a status symbol; but for the majority of students from poor Third world countries & developing economies it is the quest for knowledge & better job prospects that drive them to migrate to American and Western Universities & Colleges .Developing economies like China , Japan , India, Brazil motivate their students, even at times with state sponsorships & scholarships , to study in Western Universities for acquiring better knowledge & with access to modern technologies. Income maximization, social mobility & social status, yearning for better qualities of life propels this youth to join schools of Higher Learning. With economic & civilizational gaps between countries narrowing down day by day, the culture shock appears minimal & non-existent. Peer group influences also act as a motivating factor.
Youth migration, both within the country and at international level, is a modern day reality & not to be looked down with suspicion or anxiety. World economies have opened up; nations & nationalities have become more liberal & tolerant; people to people contact, industry to industry contact besides Government to Government contact has become more democratic & participative. A sort of give and take operates between the...
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