Young Workers: How They Perceive Their Career

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Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development


Jane Polus Masundang

This project is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for a Bachelor of Science with Honours
(Human Resource Development)

I am heartily thankful to my supervisor, Miss Siti Norazilah, whose encouragement, guidance and support from the initial to the final level enabled me to develop an understanding of the subject. Heartily thankful to my parents and friends that have never failed to motivate me and had been my source of inspiration. Lastly, I offer my regards and blessings to all those who supported me in any respect during the completion of the project.  


1.0 Introduction

In this section, several items will be discussed. Firstly, the background of the study will be explained. Then, it is the discussion on the problem statement and followed by the research questions. Research objectives will also be explained in this section. Subsequently, significant of the study and definition of terms, will be discussed. Lastly, the section ends up with the summary of this chapter.

2.1 Background of Study

Career decision-making has been a long time concern by the scholars few decades ago. Career decisions are among the most important decisions a person has to make because career choices have important and long-lasting consequences for the individual’s overall well-being, health and financial situation. Making a career decision absolutely is a complex process, whereby there are often many potential alternatives to select from, and considerable amount of information available about each alternative and many factors and aspects to consider when making a choice. According to Jim E.H Bright et al (2004), career decision-making encompasses a large group of influences that are related to making choices about education, training, jobs and careers and retirement. While contextual influences such as the family, peers, the labour market, and unplanned events are acknowledged, they have infrequently been the focus of sustained investigation in relation to career decision-making (Patton & McMahon, 1999). In reviewing the career decision-making concept back in the late 20th century, career theorist have typically characterized the career decision process as a rationale one (e.g. Dawis & Lofquist, 1984; Dawis, Lofquist & Lloyd, 1976; Dawis, Lofquist, & Weiss, 1968; Holland, 1959, 1992; Scott, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1960). Most theories acknowledge that vocational outcomes are determined by the transactions occurring between persons and their environments (Osipow, 1990). For a great extent of the environments definition would be supported by the following theorist, for instance Lent, Brown, and Hackett (1994, 1996), where has characterised the environment as: predispositions, gender, race, disability, and status. According to Patton and McMahon’s (1997,1999), systems theory framework draws attention not only to the individual as a system but also to the social context and broader environmental/societal context as larger system in which the person develops and makes career decision. Along with a range of other writers (Collins, 1990; Leong, 199; Sear,1982; Vondracek, Lerner, & Schulenberg, 1986), they point to the range and complexity of the influences of human career decision-making and development, and the need to consider a much broader range of variables across various disciplines. Nowadays, the workforce is majority made up by young workers. According to the Department of Statistics Malaysia (2011), statistics of number of labor force by age group shows that in the year 2010, the total number of labor force in Malaysia is 11,517.2 (‘000). This number of labor force is comprised of the people from the age 15 to 64 years old. Youth population...
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