Research and then explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of normal development from birth to 19 years. (1.1)
When a child is developing normally the sequence is usually the same for most children however, the rate at which each individual develops will vary from person to person. The expected pattern of development from birth to 19 is usually categorised into stages referring to their age: 0-3,3-5, 5-8, 8-12 and 12-19 years. There are several aspects of normal development including, physical, intellectual, communicational, emotional, behavioural, social and moral development The first 3 years of a baby’s life show rapid growth and development physically. Within the first year the baby develops gross motor skills to enable them to sit up then eventually stand and walk. By the age of 3 most children can use their balance and coordination to run, jump and cycle. Fine motor skills also develop rapidly through this stage. Children will begin to hold objects in a palmer grasp (whole hand), which will advance to a pincer grasp (using thumb and index finger) at about 10 months. This hand to eye coordination and manipulative skills develop while toddlers become more skilled using their hands. Between 3-5 they are physically stronger with improved gross motor skills shown with much greater control of their body’s coordination and movements. While by the age of 5 their fine motor skills have developed through manipulative skills, enough to have a dominant hand for more complex tasks. Between 5-8 years children’s physic is gaining more stamina and improved body co-ordination enabling them to play a range of outdoor activities. Children also improve their manipulative skills to a level of a detailed drawing. Childs physical development includes major transitions through the ages of 8-12 and 12-19 with both genders beginning the stage of puberty. Girls can start their menstruation from early as 10 or 11 while boys starts slightly later at the age of 13 or 14. Physical changes include girls growing breasts, larger hips and developing a menstrual cycle, while boys become more muscular, grow facial/body hair and develop a deeper voice. Males can develop poor spatial awareness through this stage.
Babies’ intellectual abilities rely primarily on their senses such as touch, sight and hearing to help understand the world around them. Simple problems solving skills such as ‘cause and effect’ help the toddler learn what to do and how to do things to get what they require. By the age of 3 children understand the basics concepts of colour, shape and size and are able to correspond these through simple insert puzzles. Object permanence is developed by the age of 3 in which the child will understand an object still exists although it may be out of sight. Children then begin to learn more difficult concepts such as time, and weight and gradually begin to complete problem solving tasks by themselves. By 5 years old most children are beginning to learn how to read and write. From 5 years onwards most intellectual information children learn is based around their school education. From ages 5-8 they are taught how read, write, pronounce words, basic mathematics, understand problems solving and many other skills such as tell the time by 8 years. By then they have begun to developed abstract ideas such as feelings. Their reasoning and problem-solving continue to develop as well as their mathematical and literacy skills. Children aged 10 can use basic algebra, interpret graphs and read/write complex stories. These intellectual skills continue to develop through education with the use of examinations and coursework, which help structure each individual’s preference of what they enjoy learning and eventually help them choose a career they want to achieve in. Social interaction also helps advance
The first stage of communication is very limited to mainly crying. The...