Young Novice Drivers in Australia

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PYB372 Assessment 1: Annotated Bibliography and Synthesis

Young Novice Drivers in Australia:
Inexperience and Presence of Passengers on Crash Risk

Student Name: Chun-Wen CHENG
Student No.:07097859
Coordinator:Dr Mark King
Tutor:Alexia Lennon & Lyndel Bates
Due Date:28/03/12
Word Count:Bibliography (1150) & Synthesis (1546)

Annotated Bibliography
Chen, L., et al. (2000). "Carrying passengers as a risk factor for crashes fatal to 16- and 17-year-old drivers." JAMA 283(12): 1578-1582.
This study attempts to determine whether the presence of passengers is associated with an increased risk of crash fatal to 16 and 17 years old drivers. Permission was obtained from the fatality analysis reporting system and general estimates system as well as the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey. The authors found that the risk of death for the 16 or 17 year old driver increases with the number of passengers carried. They offer many possible explanations for the increased risk of injury and death. Most importantly, the authors discussed graduated driver licensing. In this system, the new driver is initially allowed to driver only with supervision and in the daylight hours. Once experience is gained, then the new driver is allowed more independence. Engström, I., N. P. Gregersen, et al. (2008). "Young drivers—Reduced crash risk with passengers in the vehicle." Accident Analysis & Prevention 40(1): 341-348. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the passengers (whether presence or absence) on the risk of being involved in a crash among young drivers. To fulfil the purpose, data from the national accident database and from a database including exposure data in Sweden have been used. Result shows the rate from the total number of crashes from 1994 to 2000 involving drivers in different age groups (18-24, 25-64 and >65 years) with and without passengers was lower in the presence of passengers. The data also indicate the probability of young drivers being involved in an accident was higher for the male drivers than for the female. Ivers, R. (2009). “Novice drivers’ risky driving behaviour, risky perception, and crash risk: findings from the DRIVE study.” Public Health 99(9):1638-44.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the risk perception and risky driving behaviors are strongly related and whether either is directly associated with crashes. The study is a prospective, web-based cohort study of young drivers in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The authors found that self-reported risky driving behavior among 17-24 year old novice drivers were associated with a 50% increased risk of a car crash. This study also comfirm and strengthen prior Australian research that young driver increased risk of crash in the first year of driving who reported risky driving. As hightlighted in this study, driving with more than one passenger was the most commonly reported risky driving behavior in almost half of the participant for both gender. To conclude, this study has emphasize the point that risky driving behavior is strongly linked to crash risk among young drivers and overrides the importance of risk perceptions. Lee, C. and M. Abdel-Aty (2008). "Presence of passengers: Does it increase or reduce driver's crash potential?" Accident Analysis & Prevention 40(5): 1703-1712. This study examines the impact of passengers on the driver’s crash potential on freeways. To evaluate the effect of passengers on crash potential, Lee and Abdel-Aty used a five years crash data that occurred on a 36.3 mile stretch of Interstate-4 freeway in Orlando, Florida. This study developed a set of bivariate probit models that relate three passenger characteristic variables such as the presence of passenger, the number of passengers and the younger driver/younger passenger combination of three crash characteristic variables such as driver citation, crash type and driver’s injury...
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