Yogurt Etymology and Spelling
* The word is derived from Turkish: yoğurt, and is related to the obsolete verb yoğmak "to be curdled or coagulated; to thicken". The letter ğ was traditionally rendered as "gh" in transliterations of Turkish prior to 1928. In older Turkish, the letter denoted a voiced velar fricative /ɣ/, but this sound is elided between back vowels in modern Turkish, in which the word is pronounced [joˈuɾt].
* In English, there are several variations of the spelling of the word, including yogurt, yoghurt,
* yoghourt, yogourt, yaghourt, yahourth, yoghurd, joghourt, and jogourt.
* In the United Kingdom and Australia, yogurt and yoghurt are both current, yoghurt being more common while yogurt is used by the Australian and British dairy councils, and yoghourt is an uncommon alternative.
* In the United States, yogurt is the usual spelling and yoghurt a minor variant.
* In New Zealand, yoghurt is preferred by the New Zealand Oxford Dictionary.
* In Canada, yogurt is most common among English speakers, but many brands use yogourt, since it is an acceptable spelling in both English and French, the official languages of Canada. Whatever the spelling, the word is usually pronounced with a short o (/ˈjɒɡət/) in the UK, with a long o (/ˈjoʊɡərt/) in North America, Australia, Ireland and South Africa, and with either a long or short o in New Zealand.
* The main (starter) cultures in yogurt are Lactobacillus bulgaricus andStreptococcus thermophilus. The function of the starter cultures is to ferment lactose (milk sugar) to produce lactic acid. The increase in lactic acid decreases pH and causes the milk to clot, or form the soft gel that is characteristic of yogurt. The fermentation of lactose also produces the flavor compounds that are characteristic of yogurt. Lactobacillus bulgaricus andStreptococcus thermophilus are the only 2 cultures required by law (CFR) to be present in yogurt.
Other bacterial cultures, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus subsp. casei, and Bifido-bacteria may be added to yogurt as probiotic cultures. Probiotic cultures benefit human health by improving lactose digestion, gastrointestinal function, and stimulating the immune system.
What is Yogurt?
* Yogurt, also spelled yoghurt or yoghourt, is a thick, custard- or pudding-like food, made by the natural bacterial fermentation of milk. Many people enjoy it plain or flavored with breakfast, lunch, or as a snack, and it's also an ingredient in a number of other dishes.
The process of making yogurt involves fermenting cream or milk with live and active bacterial cultures; this is accomplished by adding bacteria directly to the dairy product. Commercial varieties are usually made with a culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilis, although some manufacturers use Lactobacillus bulgaricus rather than L. acidophilus. Yogurt made at home is usually started by adding a small amount of a commercial product to boiled milk.
In Western cultures, yogurt is enjoyed in a variety of ways, most popularly as a cool dish mixed with fruit. It can be used to make healthy shakes or frozen to eat like ice cream as well. Yogurt can also be used when cooking, in place of milk, sour cream, and even some cheeses. In Middle Eastern cultures, it's frequently served with meat, meat sauces, and vegetables. It can also be mixed with various other sauces or used as a tangy dollop on top of a meal.
When purchasing store-bought yogurt, consumers should always check the label for live cultures. If it has been pasteurized or heated after the cultures have been added, it's likely that the cultures will die. When properly made, it will keep well in a refrigerator at 40°F (4°C) for up to ten days. After this amount of time, the cultures often become weak.
Historically, some of the first yogurt most likely consisted of goat’s milk that fermented in the goatskin...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document