_x000C_Getting to Grips with Fuel Economy

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Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance

getting to grips with

fuel economy
Issue 3 - July 2004

Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance
Customer Services
1, rond-point Maurice Bellonte, BP 33 31707 BLAGNAC Cedex FRANCE Telephone (+33) 5 61 93 33 33 Telefax (+33) 5 61 93 29 68 Telex AIRBU 530526F SITA TLSBI7X

getting to grips with

fuel economy

Issue 3 - July 2004

Getting to grips with Fuel Economy

Table of contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. SUMMARY 2. PREAMBLE 3. INTRODUCTION 4. PRE-FLIGHT PROCEDURES 4.1
4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3

1 4 5 6 7
8
8 8 9

CENTER OF GRAVITY POSITION
INTRODUCTION AUTOMATIC CENTER OF GRAVITY MANAGEMENT INFLUENCE ON FUEL CONSUMPTION

4.2
4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5

TAKEOFF WEIGHT
INTRODUCTION OVERLOAD EFFECT AIRCRAFT OPERATING WEIGHT PAYLOAD EMBARKED FUEL

11
11 11 12 13 13

4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7

FLIGHT PLANNING TAXIING FUEL FOR TRANSPORTATION AUXILIARY POWER UNIT AERODYNAMIC DETERIORATION

14 17 19 21 23

5. IN FLIGHT PROCEDURES
5.1
5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.1.5 5.1.6 5.1.7

24
25
25 25 25 26 26 26 26

Take-off and Initial Climb
INTRODUCTION BLEEDS CONFIGURATION SPEEDS FLEX THRUST NOISE FLIGHT PATHS COURSE REVERSAL

-1-

1 - Summary

Getting to Grips with Fuel economy

5.2
5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5

CLIMB
INTRODUCTION THE EFFECT OF CLIMB TECHNIQUE ON FUEL BURN CORRELATION OF FUEL BURN & TIME WITH CLIMB TECHNIQUE CLIMB TECHNIQUE COMPARISON TABLES DERATED CLIMB

27
27 28 31 34 35

5.3
5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6

CRUISE
INTRODUCTION CRUISE ALTITUDE OPTIMISATION CRUISE SPEED OPTIMISATION WIND INFLUENCE MANAGED MODE EFFECT OF SPEED INCREASE ON MANAGED MODE

36
36 37 47 49 52 56

5.4
5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4

DESCENT
INTRODUCTION THE EFFECT OF DESCENT TECHNIQUES ON FUEL BURN MANAGED MODE DESCENT EARLY DESCENT

57
57 58 60 60

5.5
5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3

HOLDING
INTRODUCTION VARIOUS CONFIGURATION / SPEED COMBINATIONS LINEAR HOLDING

62
62 63 68

5.6
5.6.1 5.6.2

APPROACH
FLIGHT PATH PRIOR TO GLIDE SLOPE INTERCEPTION LANDING GEAR EXTENSION

70
70 70

6. DETAILED SUMMARY
6.1 6.2
6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.2.6 6.2.7

71
71 71
71 72 72 72 72 73 73

INTRODUCTION General guidelines
PRE-FLIGHT PROCEDURES TAKE-FF AND INITIAL CLIMB CLIMB CRUISE DESCENT HOLDING APPROACH

6.3 6.4

FUEL SAVINGS ECONOMIC BENEFITS

73 75

7. CONCLUSIONS

76

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Getting to grips with Fuel Economy

Table of contents

8. APPENDICES
APPENDIX A (Climb Charts) APPENDIX B (Descent Charts)

77
78 80

-3-

1 - Summary

Getting to Grips with Fuel economy

1. SUMMARY
Fuel Consumption is a major cost to any airline, and airlines need to focus their attention on this in order to maintain their profitability. This brochure looks at all the significant operating variables that affect fuel economy for the current Airbus range of aircraft. This brochure shows that there are many factors that affect fuel consumption and that the potential gains and losses are huge. Most of these factors are directly controlled by the airlines own employees (flight crew, operations/dispatch, maintenance, etc.). It can be also seen that what is good for one type of aircraft is not necessarily good for another, and that certain conceptions regarding best techniques for fuel economy are wrong. Finally for a fuel and cost economic airline, the following are the main features: • • • • • • • Good flight planning based on good data. Correct aircraft loading (fuel weight and CG). An aerodynamically clean aircraft. Optimal use of systems (APU, Bleed, Flaps/Slats, Gear, etc). Flight Procedures using speeds and altitudes appropriate to the companies economic priorities. Use of the FMGS in the managed mode. Use of performance factors in flight planning and in the FMGS derived from an ongoing aircraft performance monitoring program.

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Getting to grips with Fuel Economy

2 - Preamble...
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