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Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels

Laszlo Vass, Ed.D. Version 42-0008-01-01

Purpose

Please explain the purpose of this lab. Include in your explanation the major concepts you learned and any safety concerns associated with the lab.

Learning the structural and functional differences among arteries, veins, and capillaries. Identify the major arteries arising from the aorta through observation and dissection of a preserved specimen. identify the major veins draining into the superior and inferior vena cava through observation and dissection of a preserved specimen

Exercise 1: Microscopic Structure of Blood Vessels Observations Sketch your slide in the space below and label the structures indicated in the procedure. Be sure to include a description of the structures you observed on the slide

A. Describe the three layers of the wall of an artery.

The slide looks like a river with few whirlpools. And “whirlpools” has three layers they are: 1 Tunica intima. 2 Tunica Media. 3 Tunica Adventitia.

B. How do arterial walls differ from venous walls?

Arterial walls are made of elastic material and are always open. Venous wall are mainly smooth muscle, and are usually collapsed.

C. What is the function of valves in the peripheral veins?

The valves help the blood to go in one direction against gravity up towards the heart and prevent it from relaxing down.

D. Why are arteries deeper than veins in the body?
Blood is the fluid carried by the vascular system.
It consists of formed elements (blood cells) and liquid (plasma). Arteries are vital for the continuation of blood flow to the body, they are deeper in the body so they are protected In addition to that - they are also kept warmer that way - to allow for the best blood flow

Exercise 2: Identifying the Major Arteries and Veins on a Cat
Questions

A. From the aortic arch to the superior vena cava, list the major arteries and veins that deliver and drain blood from the head of the cat. Brachiocephalic artery, subclavian artery, common carotid artery , axillaries artery, left sub scapular artery, left brachial artery, left thyrocervical artery, left transverse scapular artery, facial vein, jugular vein.

B. Name the blood vessels that deliver and drain blood to and from the heart. veins carry blood toward the heart. veins make a vranching system that carries blood from smaller veins into larger veins.

venules are the smallest types of veins and collect blood from the capillaries and transport it to small veins, which then transport to medium-sized veins. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. They handle the surges of blood pressure from the ventricular systole.

C. Describe the branching of the aorta as it leaves the heart. Where does it go?

Blood is pumped from the heart, it passes across the arotic valve, and then throught the aorta, where it is then distrivuted through a system of smaller arteries. The aorta first leaves the heart and brings blood towards the head as the ascending aorta. As the aorta turns towards the left side of the body, it gives off branches to the upper body and the brain as the aortic arch. The aorta next travels down the chest, where it is called the descending aorta. The descending aorta continues through the abdomen as the abdominal aorta, where it supplies the abdominal organs before dividing to provide arteries for each leg (the iliac arteries).

D. Name the major arteries and veins that deliver and drain blood to and from the upper appendages.

Right Side of the Body:

Palmar venous arches drain hands and fingers while cephalic veins empty into axillary vein. Medin cubital vein connects cephalic and basic vein at the elbow. Radial veins drain lateral side of forearm and ulnar vein drains medial side of the forearm. Axillary vein drains the axillary areas and empties...
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