Britain in the First world war
➢ When did World war One start?
➢ Which country did Britain enter the war for?
➢ What was the BEF?
British Expeditionary Force
➢ Why did the Schlieffen Plan not work?
The resistance of the Belgians, BEF, and French stopped the Germans ➢ Why was it so important for the English to secure the channel ports in November 1914? The British were able to transport troops and supplies to France through these ports ➢ What was stalemate?
The war of movement ended. The hopes of a short war were over. The troops dug trenches. ➢ When did the two sides reach stalemate?
➢ How did military leaders believe battles were won before the First World War? Cavalry charges with infantry following behind this cavalry
What was a howitzer?
A large gun, which could fire, shells hundreds of yards away. What did the Germans do to maximise the impact of the machine gun? They set up machine gun posts enclosed in concrete to protect their trenches ➢ What was the only defence against the machine gun?
To “dig in” by building trenches
➢ Give four differences of the tactics of the First World War from earlier battles? Trench warfare
Artillery and guns more powerful
Cavalry became less important
Infantry became more important
Tanks emerged after 1916
➢ What was the main tactic followed by the generals to win the war? To take over the enemy’s trenches and drive their forces back until they surrendered ➢ Describe the course of the above attack?
Each attack would begin with heavy bombardment
➢ What would soldiers have to carry during an attack?
Clothing and weapons weighing 28 kg
➢ When was gas first used?
April 1915 by the Germans at Ypres
➢ How did the gas kill soldiers?
Chlorine gas suffocated the lungs. Mustard gas blinded its victims, burned their skin, and poisoned their lungs ➢ Why did gas eventually become ineffective?
Introduction of gas masks
➢ Where did the Germans attack in February 1916?
➢ Why did the French encourage the British to attack the Somme? Because the French were suffering at Verdun and they believed it would take the pressure off them ➢ How did the Battle of the Somme begin?
5-day bombardment of the enemy trenches. 10 minutes before the men advanced a massive mine was detonated at Hawthorne Ridge. The men attacked at 7.30 on July 1st ➢ Why did the initial stage not work?
The Germans had withdrawn into deeply dug bunkers.
The barbed wire hadn’t been cut.
The Germans had heard many of the plans on tapped telephone lines. The Germans were on high ground with a good view of the attacking forces Many of the shells provided for the allies were of poor quality ➢ How many casualties were there at the Somme?
60,000 including 20,000 deaths
➢ When did the British first use tanks?
15th September 1916
➢ How successful were these tanks at the Somme?
By the end of the first day all the tanks had been eliminated, got stuck in the mud or broken down. ➢ What were the problems with these early tanks?
They were unreliable, noisy, and very hot. Many got stuck in the mud. ➢ When did the Battle of the Somme end?
➢ How many lives were lost at the Somme?
420,000 British, 200,000 French and 500,000 Germans
➢ Why did the Somme fail?
Advances had been too slow
➢ When enemy lines were broken support had been to slow
Artillery attacks failed to destroy the defences- deep dug outs and barbed wire in tact They warned the Germans that an attack was about to begin by having a ten minute gap between the heavy underground mine and the offensive Many of these problems can be blamed on the tactics of the Generals ➢ What were the positive consequences of the Somme?
Verdun had been saved as the attack in the Somme took some of the pressure off the French Tanks and aerial photography used for the first time
German losses had long term effect on the German army
British army had shown that it...
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