1. (2pts each) Utilizing the lecture notes from the first day of class, define the following terms:
Cultural Resources – Are the sources of culture such as art, heritage, artifacts, and architecture
Cultural Resource Management – The main form of archaeology in the USA. It is used mostly by archaeologists to refer to management of historic places based on their archaeological, architectural, and historical interests in compliance with the environmental and historic preservation laws. Mostly salvage or rescue archaeology is conducted.
Historic Preservation – A way of preserving historic places, landmarks, and artifacts to protect them from destruction or any other means that may harm them.
Historic Properties – Places of historic significance that are protected under the historic preservation act. These can include architecture, such as the Mount Vernon Estate, as well as specific pieces of land themselves, such as Gettysburg.
Archeological Resources – Sources that can provide significant amounts of archaeological data such as artifacts and features. It is also something that may provided pertinent information to the archaeological record.
2. (2 pts) What is the function of cultural resource management, and what are the values of cultural resources? The function of cultural resource management (CRM) is to protect historic places based on their archaeological, architectural, and historic interests. A majority of the work done in CRM is salvage archaeology. To put it in better terms they try to salvage as much from a site as possible before construction or other forms of land development destroy it. Cultural resources provide a link to the significant knowledge that can be ascertained from archaeological and significant historical sites.
3. (5pts) The late 19th century witnessed a transformation in the way our nation viewed cultural resources. Provide an overview of private attempts at preservation during the late 19th century. There were many attempts at preservation during the late 19th century. A few that come to mind are that of Independence Hall, Gettysburg and the Mount Vernon Estate. The Mount Vernon Estate was bought by a group of people known as the Mount Vernon Ladies Association for preservation. They fully restored the Estate to its formal glory. A group of concerned citizens established the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association whose purpose was to preserve portions of the battlefield as a memorial to the Union Army that fought here. They eventually transferred their land holdings to the Federal government in 1895, which designated Gettysburg as a National Military Park. In 1872 the city of Philadelphia set aside Independence hall and forever declared it a significant landmark, which in turn led to its restoration.
4. The late 19th century witnessed a transformation in the way our nation viewed cultural resources, and this resulted in the 20th century with the passage of major state and federal legislation directed toward promoting cultural resource preservation. For each of the following provide the following information:
Antiquities Act of 1906 (9pts)
a. This was the first law passed by the United States government that attempted to protect cultural resources and antiquities, allow the president to decide which resources he deemed worthy of protection, and for excavations to be conducted only with authorized permits.
b. This legislation was intended to deal with the protection of significant historic lands and sites, as well as establish rules to limit the destruction and looting of said sites and lands. It allowed the president to decide on the significance of a particular site so that he may allow for its protection through federal means. It allowed excavations to be conducted only by means of obtaining a permit. This was to prevent private excavations...