Writting an Academic Artical

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Guidelines on writing a first quantitative academic article
Theuns Kotzé
Department of Marketing and Communication Management
University of Pretoria
theuns.kotze@up.ac.za

2nd edition

2007

Table of Contents
1

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 1

2

THE STRUCTURE OF AN ACADEMIC JOURNAL ARTICLE ...................................... 1

3

ARTICLE TITLE ............................................................................................................ 3

4

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................. 4

5

KEYWORDS ................................................................................................................. 6

6

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 7 6.1
6.2

EXAMPLES OF WELL-WRITTEN INTRODUCTIONS ........................................ 8

6.3
7

THE SIX ELEMENTS OF AN INTRODUCTION .................................................. 7

ADDITIONAL COMMENTS ON DRAFTING AN INTRODUCTION ................... 12

LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................................. 19 7.1

THE PURPOSE OF A LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................. 20

7.2

FINDING APPROPRIATE LITERATURE .......................................................... 21

7.3

MANAGING INFORMATION ............................................................................. 24

7.4
COMPILING A LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................ 25 7.4.1
Which aspects should I include in a literature review? ................................. 25 7.4.2
How should I go about to synthesise information in a literature review? ...... 26 7.4.3
How should I structure a literature review?................................................... 34 7.4.4
What writing style should I use when compiling a literature review? ............ 41 8

METHODOLOGY ....................................................................................................... 44 8.1
8.2

DATA COLLECTION ......................................................................................... 48

8.3
9

SAMPLING ........................................................................................................ 44

MEASURES ...................................................................................................... 49

RESULTS ................................................................................................................... 53 9.1

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR REPORTING RESEARCH RESULTS ............. 53

9.2
REPORTING DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS ...................................................... 55 9.2.1
Univariate descriptive statistics for variables at a nominal or ordinal level of measurement ................................................................................... 56 9.2.2
Univariate descriptive statistics for rating scales .......................................... 59 9.2.3
Univariate descriptive statistics for ratio-scaled variables............................. 62 9.2.4
Other descriptive statistics............................................................................ 63 9.3

REPORTING THE RESULTS OF HYPOTHESIS TESTS ................................. 65

10 DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................. 72 11 THE LIST OF REFERENCES OF AN ARTICLE ........................................................ 79 12 WRITING THE ARTICLE ............................................................................................ 79 -i-

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