Written grammar presentation
based on “Fever Pitch” by Nick Hornby
The use of all (of), whole, every, each
“Fever Pitch” is probably the best football book ever written and one that revolves around the way the obsession about football influences the narrator’s life and personality. The book is an autobiography that is structured in a very interesting way-it has no plot but is written as a diary in which every Arsenal game is connected with certain moment of the author’s life, certain emotion and memory. Although Arsenal is into the spotlights and we can feel Hornby’s devotion to the club, the book is an exploration of some of the meanings that football seems to contain for many fans of various other clubs including myself. Many other issues such as racism, television broadcast, football tragedies, hooliganism, women’s passion for sports and so on were also touched upon. The book is very emotional and is basically written in plain informal English, thus author and audience are brought even closer together. The reason why I chose this topic for the presentation is not only because the text offers plenty of examples but also because I find these grammar rules (about the use of all (of), whole, every, each) a bit fuzzy for me and for my colleagues, I believe. First of all, I will elaborate on the use of ALL (OF). “We use ALL after the noun it refers to” (Cambridge Advanced Grammar in Use, Second Edition by Martin Hewings, p.102).Here are a few examples of the book that illustrate the usage: But then, we all do it at some time or another, chaps, don’t we? ( p.12)
How we all wished we came from the Chicago Projects, or the Kingston ghettos, or the mean streets of north London or Glasgow!(p.13) It all seemed so languid, and the ball trundled in so slowly, that I feared that it would not have the strength to cross the line completely.(p.17)
“We usually put ALL after the verb BE” (Cambridge Advanced Grammar in Use, Second Edition by Martin Hewings, p.102) as in the following examples: But then, most football fans do not have a criminal record, or carry knives, or urinate in pockets, or get up to any of the things that they are all supposed to.(p.135) In the return at Highbury, however, we got stuffed, overrun, outplayed, and it was all over, maybe for another twenty years.(p.26)
However, “ALL can also be put after the first auxiliary verb if there is one” (Cambridge Advanced Grammar in Use, Second Edition by Martin Hewings, p.102). We must all have* been in some kind of a dream, everything failed for the Austrian champion and were predicting a triumphant and stately procession through to the European Cup Final. (p.113) *In spoken English of if we want to put more emphasis we can also say “we all must have been” and it would be perfectly fine. If we want to make negative sentences “we use NOT ALL (OF) rather than ALL...NOT”. For example: After Brady had gone Arsenal tried out a string of midfield players, some of them competent, some not all of them doomed by the fact that they weren’t the person they were trying to replace.(p.31) There have been so many players that the crowd have rubbished over the years, and not all of them were bad.(p.47) Although sometimes we have freedom of choice as far as the place of the word ALL in a sentence is considered as in the examples above, we have to be aware that “NOT ALL and NONE OF have a different meaning” (Cambridge Advanced Grammar in Use, Second Edition by Martin Hewings, p.102).See the above sentence:
Thirteen of our league games that year ended nil-nil or 1-0, and it is fair to say that *none of them were pretty.(p.24) *If we try to use...