CHAPTER 3: GRAMMAR
WORD CLASSES (PARTS OF SPEECH)
Word Classes, also known as parts of speech, consist of eight parts:\
I. THE NOUN
A noun is a word that names something – a person, a place, a thing, or an idea
Some nouns refer to a general class of persons, places or things. They are called common nouns, and they are not capitalised unless they are used to begin a sentence. students
Some nouns refer to specific persons, places, or things. They are called proper nouns and they are always capitalised Mahatma Ghandi
Petronas Twin Towers
Exercise 1: Read the following passage and underline the nouns.
Roosters are the most eccentric of the Chinese zodiac. They are full of dreams and romantic ideas. They are colorful and attractive, radiant and dashing, and they are quite proud of themselves. Roosters are organized, precise, and their sharp eyes seek out fine details in everything. They are perfectionists and leave no room for human error. To Roosters, a difficult task is a challenge. They dearly love starting controversies. Roosters express themselves very well both in writing and speech. They are knowledgeable in most subjects you wish to discuss. When you challenge them you must be prepared for a long fight. Their stamina is amazing and they win their point at all costs. Even when they are wrong, they will still be right in one way or another! Roosters can be blunt and brutal. Their direct approach to life makes them poor diplomats. They speak their minds with little regard for the feelings of others. Why should others be upset? Roosters are right, aren't they?
II. THE PRONOUN
The words that are used to substitute for nouns are called pronouns • As Jamal began to take his computer test, he tried to ignore the beeping sound coming from a cellular phone behind him.
Unlike a noun, a pronoun does not name a specific person, place, thing or idea. Most common pronouns are as follow: I, me, my, mine
You, your, yours
He, him, his
She, her, hers
We, us, ours, ours
They, them, their, theirs
Who, whose, whom
Anybody, everybody, somebody
Everyone, no one, someone
Something, some, all, many, any
Each, none, one, this, that, these
Those, which, what
Exercise 2: Circle the pronoun.
1. Although he died in 1977, Elvis Presley continues to be the subject of books and documentaries, and he has become one of the country’s musical legends. 2. Elvis was born in 1935 in Tupelo, Mississippi, but he later moved with his parents to Memphis, Tennessee. 3. His father and mother were uneducated and “dirt poor”, according to friends of the family; nevertheless, they encouraged their son’s interest in music and bought him a guitar. 4. While working as a truck drive, Elvis began to sing in the church basement, at school, in neighbour’s backyards, and for anyone who would listen to him. 5. To develop his own stage personality and to conceal his nervousness, he wore far-out clothes and combed his hair in a grease-laden pompadour.
III. THE VERB
Every sentence must have a verb. Sometimes the verb is only implied; usually, however, it is stated.
A verb is a word that expresses action or state of being and thereby tells us what a noun or a pronoun does or what it is. If the verb tells us what a noun or pronoun does, it is an action verb. • Julia paints beautiful landscapes, which she hides in her room. • Neil Armstrong landed on the moon in 1969.
• Marijuana is criminalised in the US.
Another form of verb is called auxiliary verbs. It includes the...
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