Write Up Genetic Engineering

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Steps to Produce Genetic Modified Organisms:2
Producing Transgenic Animal:4
Examples of Transgenic Animal:5
Producing Transgenic Plant:5
Examples of Transgenic Plant:6
The Risks of Genetically Modified Food:7
News Clip On Genetically Modified Product:8

Write Up: Genetic Engineering
Genetic engineering is a process to transferred genes from one organism to another set of genes which is unrelated with each other. This process can be done because the genetic code is universal, this means that any triplet code represent the same amino acids whether it being read in bacterium, green plant, fungus or animal. The usage of genetic technology has important applications for example in pharmaceutical industry, medicine, horticulture and forensic science.

Steps to Produce Genetic Modified Organisms:
There are several steps that needed to be done before genetic engineering can be completed. The first step is isolating the DNA from the source genome, which the DNA that useful to be inserted into a new organism. For example, isolate DNA from strawberry cell. Firstly, we need to mash the fruit and dissolve the fruit in a cup containing detergent to dissolve the organelles and cell membrane. Next, pour acid (NaCl) into the cup that contained the mash fruit and detergent to separate the DNA and mash fruit. This is because (Na+) in the acid will attracted to (-) DNA and separate the DNA from the residue. After that, we need to filter out the clump with filter paper and the residue will left and pour cold-alcohol into the filtered solution and the DNA strand will float in the alcohol. This can be done because DNA is not soluble in cold alcohol. Next step after isolating the DNA is to cut the DNA strand. Restriction enzyme can be done in several ways which will produce blunt end or sticky end. Some examples of blunt end are Alul and HaeIII while for sticky end are BamHI, HindIII and EcoRI. The restriction enzymes for each example above are different between each other and the example of the restriction are shown in the picture below. (users.rcn.com)

Next step after cutting the DNA is isolating the DNA by fragment using electrophoresis. Electrophoresis is a process to separate particles including biologically important molecules such as DNA and RNA. This process is carried out on Agarose gel or on polyacralamide gel(PAG). Both this gels contain tiny pores that act like molecular sieve where smaller particles can move quickly but larger particle move much more slowly. The present of slightly negative charge in phosphate group in the DNA will make the molecule move toward positive pole and separate the DNA fragment according to its size and charge carried. In biology, vector is an agent that transport between one organism and another but in genetic engineering, vector is ‘carrier DNA’ into which DNA fragment containing particular gene can be inserted. So, it can introduce the gene into new organism. A bacterium such as E. coli contains two types of genetic material which is nucleoid (long double strand of DNA in the form of ring, circular chromosome) and plasmid (smaller ring than nucleoid in cytoplasm). In genetic engineering, we use plasmid as vector for cloning because plasmid is easier to be isolated from bacterium and can re-introduced to a bacterial cell to produce a new organisms with new characteristics because plasmid copy themselves independently in chromosome, so any new genes that are added to plasmid will be copied many times. The process to re-introduce cell into new gene by using plasmid need several ways to make it a complete process. Firstly, plasmid will be cut in the form of sticky end and the same cut is used to cut out the gene from DNA. The sticky end will form a complimentary and will be combined together using ligase enzyme. The simple picture below will make an easier conclusion about this process. (www.munca.ca)

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