Naturalism: The universe is a natural place and there are no supernatural beings. The universe is all there is and it is a closed system. Materialism: All is matter/energy.
Determinism: Matter is determined—for every effect there is a prior, physical cause. Knowledge
Sensory empiricism: Knowledge comes from sensory experience, from your senses. Radical empiricism: An extreme form of empiricism that says there is no need for any other method of knowing beyond empiricism. Logical positivism: A philosophical system that embraces radical empiricism. Human natureBiological machine: Human beings are just so much biological material, and like all matter they are determined. There are no minds or souls, only brains. Reductionism: This is a philosophy that explains the complex or mental in human beings by reference only to mere biology or mere animal. Reductionism says, “Human beings are nothing but functioning brains or are nothing but higher animals.” Human problemsPhysical causes—genetics, psychological conditioning, brain chemistry: Problems ranging from mental illness, crime, anger, and war are the products of something wrong in the natural realm of the person. Sin nature or sin is an outmoded concept in the worldview of the naturalist. Solutions to human problemsBehavior modification, genetic engineering, personality-altering drugs: These treat the physical nature of the person and assume that is all there is. Human valueArbitrary value in the human race: Your genes (the human race) will survive, even if you do not. Human purposeReproductive success (survival of the fittest): A human being is a gene’s way to make another gene. Ethics Whatever promotes survival of the human race is good and moral: If the behavior helps us survive, then it is moral behavior. Is = ought ethics: Whatever human behavior has survived down through the ages and has not destroyed the cultures embracing it must be okay and...