Tamil Eelam (Tamil: தமிழீழம் tamiḻ īḻam, generally rendered outside Tamil-speaking areas ) is a proposed independent statethat Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora aspire to create in the north and east of Sri Lanka. Tamil Eelam has no official status orrecognition by world states though sections of the Eelam were under de facto control of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) for most of the2000s. The name is derived from the ancient Tamil name for Sri Lanka, Eelam. TAMIL PERIOD
The Jaffna kingdom (1215-1624 CE), also known as Kingdom of Aryacakravarti, of modern northern Sri Lanka was a historic independent monarchy that came into existence after the invasion of Magha, who is said to have been from Kalinga, in India. Established as a powerful force in the north, east] and west of the island, it eventually became a tribute paying feudatory of the Pandyan Empire in modern South India in 1258, gaining independence later with the fragmentation of the Pandyan control. For a brief period, in the early to mid-14th century, it was an ascendant power in the island of Sri Lanka when all regional kingdoms accepted subordination. However, the kingdom was eventually overpowered by the rival Kotte Kingdom, around 1450. ASPIRATION AND CHELVANAYAKAM
The Federal Party (Sri Lanka) (FP) became the most dominant Tamil political party in 1956 and lobbied for a unitary state which gave Tamil and Sinhalese equal rights, including recognition of two official languages (Tamil and Sinhala) and considerable autonomy for the Tamil areas. It was against this backdrop that the Federal party decided to sign the Bandaranaike-Chelvanayakam Pact in July 1957. In 1965, another pact, the Senanayake-Chelvanayakam Pact was signed but also not implemented. In 1973, Tamil parties' call for regional autonomy was replaced with the demand for a separate state called Tamil Eelam. Two years later, in 1975, all Tamil political parties merged and became known as the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF). In 1976, the first national convention of the Tamil United Liberation Front was held at Vaddukoddai, where the party adopted a unanimous resolution called the Vaddukodai Resolution. This resolution charged that the Sinhalese government, with the use of the constitution of 1972, had used its power to "deprive the Tamil nation of its territory, language, citizenship, economic life, opportunities of employment and education thereby destroying all the attributes of nationhood of the Tamil people." The resolution further called for the "Free, Sovereign, Secular Socialist State of TAMIL EELAM". As a result of the Vaddukodai resolution, the Tamil United Liberation Front became the first Tamil political party to run its campaign on a separatist platform. It swept the parliamentary elections in the Tamil-dominated districts of the North and East in 1977, winning 18 seats and became the largest opposition in Parliament The reason for the success of the TULF was seen as the result of growing Tamil agitation for self-determination. During the time of the Vaddukodai declaration, there were several Tamil militant organizations who believed that armed struggle was the only way to protect the sovereignty of the Tamil areas. TULF, however, believed in peaceful parliamentary ways towards achieving a solution. Though the TULF had adapted a separatist platform, they were still open to peaceful negotiations and decided to work towards a political agreement with President J.R Jayewardene. The outcome was the District Development Councils scheme (DDC) passed in 1980. The District Development Councils scheme was based, to some extent, on decentralization of the government within a united Sri Lanka. DDCs were soon abandoned because the two sides were not able to agree to the number of District Ministers in the Tamil...