World War 2

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World War II killed more people and destroyed more property,

distrupted more lives and probably had more far-reaching consequences

than any other war in history. Exact number of people killed because of

World War II will never be known. Civilian deaths were even greater as a

result of starvation, bombing raids, massacres, epidemics and other war-

related causes. 1

The attack on the Philippine started on December 8, 1941, when

Japan attacked without warning. Japanese troops invaded the islands in

many places on Manila. MacArthur’s scattered defending forces were

forced to withdraw to Bataan Peninsula and Corregidor Island, they were

1 “World War II”, The World Book Encyclopedia.
v.21, p.468

entrenched and tried to until the arrival of reinforcements. They guarding

the entrance to Manila Bay. But no reinforcements were forthcoming. The

Japanese occupied Manila on January 2, 1942. MacArthur was ordered out

by President Roosevelt and left for Australia on March 1942. 2

The government of the Philippines during the Japanese

occupation was in the hands of the Executive Commission, a group of

Filipino officials controlled by Japanese Military Administration. Because of

the war conditions and unreconciled attitude of people towards their

Japanese masters. Several restriction were imposed. Martial Law was

2 “Philippine History-WWII”
http://pinas.com.dlsu.edu.ph/history.html,Feb.22,2012.

followed, curfew hours were watched, radio receivers and transmitter were

banned. Japanese currency, “Mickey Mouse” money, was circulated. 3

Air, ground, and naval forces had all worked together to bring

the Allies to the Philippines. MacArthur and his staff waded ashore at

Tacloban about five hours after the 1st landings. He had kept his promise

to return. By December, the Sixth Army was occupied Leyte.

The Japanese Navy decided to remain their strength to try to

drive the Allies from Leyte. The battle for Leyte Gulf was the biggest naval

3 Jose S. Arcilla, An Introduction to Philippines During the Japanese Occupation 1942-1945 (Quezon City: The Asian Center University of the Philippine Press 1981)p.94.

engagement in history. It consisted of actions in four separate ares. In the

Sibuyan Sea, in Surigao Strait, off Samar, and off Cape Engano.

Japanese troops fiercely resisted the Allied advance toward

Manila, and destroyed part of the Manila. By the end of February 1945, the

Allies had largely cleared Manila and Luzon of enemy forces. 4

In October 1944, the much awaited American Liberaton force

landed successfully in Leyte. Other American troops landed in Lingayen and

raced toward Manila. February 3, 1945, the U.S. forces , aided by Filipino

and Chinese guerilla units, was entered the Manila for more than three

4 “World War II”, The World Book Encyclopedia.
v.21,p.482-483.
years. The crucial battle for the liberation of the city lasted for three weeks.

Japanese troops, in desperations, they burned the city and killed helpless

civilians. 5

The constant emotional struggle that the Filipinos have to go

through, result in great mental strain. Many Filipinos suffer from Post-

Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD. It is characterized by symptoms like

nightmares, feelings of detachments, irritability, sleeplessness, and

difficulties in concentrating. Their homesickness can lead to intense feelings

of solitude. Their trauma brings them mental insecurity. The violence,

5 Antonio S. Tan, The Chinese In The Philippines During The Japanese Occupation 1942-1945 (Quezon City: The Asian Center University of the Philippine Press 1981)p.94

injuries and heavy destructions result in distress. Lack of care or...
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